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Dinner without reservations

Jue, 06/21/2018 - 11:38

In vivo brain GPCR signaling elucidated by phosphoproteomics

Jue, 06/21/2018 - 11:38

A systems view of G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling in its native environment is central to the development of GPCR therapeutics with fewer side effects. Using the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) as a model, we employed high-throughput phosphoproteomics to investigate signaling induced by structurally diverse agonists in five mouse brain regions. Quantification of 50,000 different phosphosites provided a systems view of KOR in vivo signaling, revealing novel mechanisms of drug action. Thus, we discovered enrichment of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway by U-50,488H, an agonist causing aversion, which is a typical KOR-mediated side effect. Consequently, mTOR inhibition during KOR activation abolished aversion while preserving beneficial antinociceptive and anticonvulsant effects. Our results establish high-throughput phosphoproteomics as a general strategy to investigate GPCR in vivo signaling, enabling prediction and modulation of behavioral outcomes.

Comment on "Sterilizing immunity in the lung relies on targeting fungal apoptosis-like programmed cell death"

Jue, 06/21/2018 - 11:38

Shlezinger et al. (Reports, 8 September 2017, p. 1037) report that the common fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, a cause of aspergillosis, undergoes caspase-dependent apoptosis-like cell death triggered by lung neutrophils. However, the technologies they used do not provide reliable evidence that fungal cells die via a protease signaling cascade thwarted by a fungal caspase inhibitor homologous to human survivin.

Analysis of shared heritability in common disorders of the brain

Jue, 06/21/2018 - 11:38

Disorders of the brain can exhibit considerable epidemiological comorbidity and often share symptoms, provoking debate about their etiologic overlap. We quantified the genetic sharing of 25 brain disorders from genome-wide association studies of 265,218 patients and 784,643 control participants and assessed their relationship to 17 phenotypes from 1,191,588 individuals. Psychiatric disorders share common variant risk, whereas neurological disorders appear more distinct from one another and from the psychiatric disorders. We also identified significant sharing between disorders and a number of brain phenotypes, including cognitive measures. Further, we conducted simulations to explore how statistical power, diagnostic misclassification, and phenotypic heterogeneity affect genetic correlations. These results highlight the importance of common genetic variation as a risk factor for brain disorders and the value of heritability-based methods in understanding their etiology.

Response to Comment on "Sterilizing immunity in the lung relies on targeting fungal apoptosis-like programmed cell death"

Jue, 06/21/2018 - 11:38

Aouacheria et al. question the interpretation of contemporary assays to monitor programmed cell death with apoptosis-like features (A-PCD) in Aspergillus fumigatus. Although our study focuses on fungal A-PCD for host immune surveillance and infectious outcomes, the experimental approach incorporates multiple independent A-PCD markers and genetic manipulations based on fungal rather than mammalian orthologs to circumvent the limitations associated with any single approach.