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Recurrent cortical circuits implement concentration-invariant odor coding

Jue, 09/13/2018 - 11:37

Animals rely on olfaction to find food, attract mates, and avoid predators. To support these behaviors, they must be able to identify odors across different odorant concentrations. The neural circuit operations that implement this concentration invariance remain unclear. We found that despite concentration-dependence in the olfactory bulb (OB), representations of odor identity were preserved downstream, in the piriform cortex (PCx). The OB cells responding earliest after inhalation drove robust responses in sparse subsets of PCx neurons. Recurrent collateral connections broadcast their activation across the PCx, recruiting global feedback inhibition that rapidly truncated and suppressed cortical activity for the remainder of the sniff, discounting the impact of slower, concentration-dependent OB inputs. Eliminating recurrent collateral output amplified PCx odor responses rendered the cortex steeply concentration-dependent and abolished concentration-invariant identity decoding.

Asymmetric phosphoric acid-catalyzed four-component Ugi reaction

Jue, 09/13/2018 - 11:37

The Ugi reaction constructs α-acylaminoamide compounds by combining an aldehyde or ketone, an amine, a carboxylic acid, and an isocyanide in a single flask. Its appealing features include inherent atom and step economy together with the potential to generate products of broad structural diversity. However, control of the stereochemistry in this reaction has proven to be a formidable challenge. We describe an efficient enantioselective four-component Ugi reaction catalyzed by a chiral phosphoric acid derivative that delivers more than 80 α-acylaminoamides in good to excellent enantiomeric excess. Experimental and computational studies establish the reaction mechanism and origins of stereoselectivity.

Response to Comment on "Unexpected reversal of C3 versus C4 grass response to elevated CO2 during a 20-year field experiment"

Jue, 09/13/2018 - 11:37

Nie and colleagues suggest a key role for interannual climate variation as an explanation for the temporal dynamics of an unexpected 20-year reversal of biomass responses of C3-C4 grasses to elevated CO2. However, we had already identified some climate-dependent differences in C3 and C4 responses to eCO2 and shown that these could not fully explain the temporal dynamics we observed.

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