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Galapagos study finds that new species can develop in as little as 2 generations

Mié, 11/22/2017 - 23:00
A study of Darwin's finches, which live on the Galapagos Islands in the Pacific Ocean, has revealed direct genetic evidence that new species can arise in just two generations.

The world needs to rethink the value of water

Mié, 11/22/2017 - 23:00
Research led by Oxford University, published today in Science, highlights the accelerating pressure on measuring, monitoring and managing water locally and globally. A new four-part framework is proposed to value water for sustainable development to guide better policy and practice.

Physicists develop faster way to make Bose-Einstein condensates

Mié, 11/22/2017 - 23:00
MIT physicists have invented a new technique to cool atoms into condensates, which is faster than the conventional method and conserves a large fraction of the original atoms. The team used a new process of laser cooling to cool a cloud of rubidium atoms all the way from room temperature to 1 microkelvin, or less than one-millionth of a degree above absolute zero.

How badly do you want something? Babies can tell

Mié, 11/22/2017 - 23:00
Babies as young as 10 months can assess how much someone values a particular goal by observing how hard they are willing to work to achieve it, according to a new study from MIT and Harvard. This ability requires integrating information about both the costs of obtaining a goal and the benefit gained by the person seeking it, suggesting that babies acquire very early an intuition about how people make decisions.

World's smallest tape recorder is built from microbes

Mié, 11/22/2017 - 23:00
Through a few clever molecular hacks, researchers at Columbia University Medical Center have converted a natural bacterial immune system into a microscopic data recorder, laying the groundwork for a new class of technologies that use bacterial cells for everything from disease diagnosis to environmental monitoring.

Antimalarial drugs could support existing cancer treatments in two-pronged attack

Mié, 11/22/2017 - 23:00
Antimalarial drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine could make tumour cells more sensitive to cancer treatment.

Small but distinct differences among species mark evolution of human brain

Mié, 11/22/2017 - 23:00
The most dramatic divergence between humans and other primates can be found in the brain, the primary organ that gives our species its identity.However, all regions of the human brain have molecular signatures very similar to those of our primate relatives, yet some regions contain distinctly human patterns of gene activity that mark the brain's evolution and may contribute to our cognitive abilities, a new Yale-led study has found.

Push to twist: Achieving the classically impossible in human-made material

Mié, 11/22/2017 - 23:00
Researchers have designed a metamaterial that can twist to the right or the left in response to a straight, solid push.

Tumor-associated bacteria hitches a ride to metastatic sites

Mié, 11/22/2017 - 23:00
The same bacteria present in primary tumors of patients with colorectal cancer are also present in liver metastases, a new study finds.

Comparison of primate brains hints at what makes us human

Mié, 11/22/2017 - 23:00
A detailed comparative analysis of human, chimpanzee and macaque brains reveals elements that make the human brain unique, including cortical circuits underlying production of the neurotransmitter dopamine.

Infants understand that more desirable rewards require more effort

Mié, 11/22/2017 - 23:00
Infants who observe someone putting more effort into attaining a goal attribute more value to it, a new study finds.

Ludwig researchers unravel novel mechanism by which tumors grow resistant to radiotherapy

Mié, 11/22/2017 - 23:00
A Ludwig Cancer Research study has uncovered a key mechanism by which tumors develop resistance to radiation therapy and shown how such resistance might be overcome with drugs that are currently under development.

Radiographs of Dolly's skeleton show no signs of abnormal osteoarthritis

Mié, 11/22/2017 - 23:00
Original concerns that cloning caused early-onset osteoarthritis in Dolly the sheep are unfounded, say experts at the University of Nottingham and the University of Glasgow.The team, who published last year's Nottingham Dollies research which showed that the 8 year-old Nottingham 'Dollies' had aged normally, have now published a radiographic assessment of the skeletons of Dolly herself, Bonnie (her naturally conceived daughter) and Megan and Morag (the first two animals to be cloned from differentiated cells).

Helpers at the nest may allow mother birds to lay smaller eggs

Mié, 11/22/2017 - 23:00
Cooperatively breeding birds and fish may have evolved the adaptive ability to reduce the size of their eggs when helpers are available to lighten the parental load, a new study suggests. The findings indicate that in some species, the social environment may influence female reproductive decisions even prior to the birth of offspring.

New batteries with better performance and improved safety

Mié, 11/22/2017 - 23:00
Currently the most important technology for batteries is the lithium-ion battery technology: but the technology is expensive and contains a flammable liquid. To satisfy the growing demand from emerging markets, researchers from Empa and UNIGE have devised a new battery prototype: known as "all-solid-state", this battery has the potential to store more energy while maintaining high safety and reliability levels. Furthermore, the battery is based on sodium, a cheap alternative to lithium.

Ocean floor mud reveals secrets of past European climate

Mié, 11/22/2017 - 23:00
Samples of sediment taken from the ocean floor of the North Atlantic Ocean have given researchers an unprecedented insight into the reasons why Europe's climate has changed over the past 3,000 years.

Research reveals China's reversing emission flows

Mié, 11/22/2017 - 23:00
The flow of China's carbon emissions has reversed according to new research led by scientists at the University of East Anglia (UEA).The study estimates the carbon implications of recent changes in the country's economic development patterns and role in international trade since the global financial crisis.

Scientists find key to regenerating blood vessels

Mié, 11/22/2017 - 23:00
Researchers at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) have identified a signaling pathway that is essential for angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels. The findings, published in Nature Communications, may improve current strategies to improve blood flow in ischemic tissue, such as that found in atherosclerosis and peripheral vascular disease associated with diabetes.

Meadows beat out shrubs when it comes to storing carbon

Mié, 11/22/2017 - 23:00
While the world focuses on controlling global warming caused by CO2 emissions from fossil fuels, less attention has been paid to the capacity of vegetation and soils to take up and store carbon. A remote field site in the Norwegian mountains is improving our understanding of carbon cycling in high-latitude alpine areas.

Moderate coffee drinking 'more likely to benefit health than to harm it' say experts

Mar, 11/21/2017 - 23:00
Drinking coffee is 'more likely to benefit health than to harm it' for a range of health outcomes, say researchers in The BMJ today.