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The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
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CAMH study shows global estimates of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder among children

Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
Globally, nearly eight out of every 1,000 children in the general population is estimated to have Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), according to a new study by the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH). In addition, it's estimated that one out of 13 women who consumed any alcohol at any point or frequency during pregnancy delivered a child with FASD.

Newly developed nomograms provide accurate predictions for patients with oropharyngeal cancer

Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
NRG Oncology researchers recently developed and validated a nomogram that can predict 2-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with local-regionally advanced oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) treated primarily with radiation-based therapy. This nomogram was developed with data from clinical trials NRG Oncology/RTOG 0129 and 0522. Results were published online in the Journal of Clinical Oncology on Aug. 4, 2017.

CHEO researchers identify practices leading to safer outcomes in procedural sedation for children

Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
This study represents the largest and most robust prospective emergency department procedural sedation cohort to date. It includes children from six emergency departments across Canada, sedated with six different medication combinations. The results of the study show that choice of sedation medication had the biggest impact on the incidence of adverse events and need for significant interventions in response to those events.

Both chimpanzees and humans spontaneously imitate each other's actions 

Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
Decades of research has shown that apes, in spite of their proverbial aping abilities, are rather poor imitators, especially when compared to human children. Current theories hold that apes are worse imitators because they lack this social and communicative side of imitation. A new study from Lund University, published in the journal Primates, has instead targeted the interactive side of imitation directly, and finds that the divide between humans and chimpanzees is less clear cut.

When fish swim in the holodeck

Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
Standard behavior experiments to investigate behavior in popular lab animals only incompletely mimic natural conditions. The understanding of behavior and brain function is thus limited. Virtual Reality helps in generating a more natural experimental environment but requires immobilization of the animal, disrupting sensorimotor experience and causing altered neuronal and behavioral responses. Researchers have now developed a VR system for freely moving animals to overcome most of these limitations.

Many young cancer patients do not receive adequate fertility information and support

Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
All cancer patients of reproductive age should be provided with fertility information and referrals for fertility preservation.

'Lost city' used 500 years of soil erosion to benefit crop farming

Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
Researchers at the University of York working on a 700-year-old abandoned agricultural site in Tanzania have shown that soil erosion benefited farming practices for some 500 years.

Chronic stress induces fatal organ dysfunctions via a new neural circuit

Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
New research reveals the mechanisms behind the effects of chronic stress and tiny inflammations in the brain on fatal gut failure.

In Neptune, it's raining diamonds

Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
Researchers at HZDR have managed to demonstrate 'diamond showers' forming in the ice giants of our solar system. Using the ultra-strong X-ray laser and other facilities at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, they simulated the conditions inside the cosmic giants. For the first time ever, they were able to observe the fission of hydrocarbon and the conversion of carbon into diamonds in real time. They published their results in the journal Nature Astronomy.

Heating quantum matter: A novel view on topology

Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
Certain quantities appear as integer multiples of fundamental and indivisible elements. This quantization of physical quantities at the heart of our description of Nature, made its way through the centuries, as evidenced by the antique concept of the atom. The discovery of quantized quantities has often been associated with a revolution in our understanding of nature's law, a striking example being the quantization of light in terms of photons, which led to our contemporary description of the microscopic world.

Research could help robots to correct errors on-the-fly and learn from each other

Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
New stochastic separation theorems proved by University of Leicester mathematicians could enhance capabilities of artificial intelligence.

Nagoya physicists resolve long-standing mystery of structure-less transition

Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
Nagoya University researchers probe a mysterious phase transition in an organic molecular conductor using synchrotron X-ray radiation.

Biochemical 'fingerprints' reveal diabetes progression

Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
Researchers from Umeå University in Sweden describe a new method to study biochemical changes that occur in the pancreas during the development of diabetes. The method, recently published in Scientific Reports, is based on molecular spectroscopy and can be used to extract biochemical profiles (or 'fingerprints') containing information about disease progression. The method could facilitate improved understanding of the mechanistic processes on molecular and cellular levels that are key to the development of diabetes.

Before the flood: What drives preparedness?

Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
More targeted efforts are needed from both the public and private insurance sectors in order to encourage people to take action to reduce their risk of flood damage, according to a new study of three European countries.

Systematically studying slippery surfaces

Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
Polymer brushes are polymers grown on surfaces, and are attractive for use in lubrication and anti-fouling applications. Kyushu University researchers varied the length of the chain separating negatively and positively charged functional groups in polymer brushes to investigate how chain length affected the interaction of the polymer brushes with water. They found that the chain length influenced the ionic strength sensitivity for the hydration of the polymer brushes in water but not their water uptake or hydration structure.

Post-whaling recovery of Southern Hemisphere

Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
By 2100 some Southern Hemisphere whale species will not have reached half their pre-whaling numbers, while other species are expected to recover by 2050.

'Electronic skin' takes wearable health monitors to the next level

Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
Korean researchers developed a new, electronic skin which can track heart rate, respiration, muscle movement and other health data. The electronic skins offers several improvements over existing trackers, including greater flexibility, portability, and the ability to stick the self-adhesive patch.

Our hairy insides

Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
MIT engineers have predicted how tiny hairs lining blood vessels and intestines bend to flowing fluid. The results may help to design microfluidic devices such as hydraulic valves and diodes.

Link between cells associated with aging and bone loss

Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
Mayo Clinic researchers have reported a causal link between senescent cells -- the cells associated with aging and age-related disease -- and bone loss in mice. Targeting these cells led to an increase in bone mass and strength. The findings appear online in Nature Medicine.

Are there racial differences in cognitive outcomes based on BP targets?

Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
A new article published by JAMA Neurology investigates how various blood pressure targets for older patients treated for hypertension were associated with cognitive function and if racial differences existed in long-term cognitive outcomes.

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