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Audit uncovers concerns about the use of electroconvulsive therapy in England

Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) continues to be used in England without comprehensive national auditing.

Apixaban -- metabolism, pharmacologic properties and drug interactions

Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
New oral anticoagulants (NOACs) represent direct-acting drugs functioning selectively for one specific clotting factor. Their clinical indications are the prophylaxis and treatment of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, the prevention of atherothrombotic episodes of individuals with acute coronary syndromes and atrial fibrillation

Chromosomes may be knotted

Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
Little is known about the structures of our genetic material, chromosomes, which consist of long strings that -- according to our experience -- should be likely to become knotted. However, up to now it has not been possible to study this experimentally. Researchers at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now found that chromosomes may indeed be knotted.

Dartmouth to debut wearables that warn and wow at UIST 2017

Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
A smart watch that takes the user to another dimension and a smart ring that provides powerful feedback are among the top technology Dartmouth College will bring to the 30th ACM User Interface Software and Technology Symposium (UIST 2017).

'Antelope perfume' keeps flies away from cows

Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
In Africa, tsetse flies transfer the sleeping sickness also to cattle. The damage is estimated to be about 4.6 billion US dollars each year. Prof. Dr. Christian Borgemeister from the Center for Development Research (ZEF) at the University of Bonn and his colleagues from Kenya and the UK have developed an innovative way of preventing the disease. Tsetse flies avoid waterbucks, a widespread antelope species in Africa. The scientists imitated the smell of these antelopes.

Fewer stillbirths at East African hospital following introduction of childbirth guidelines

Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
In collaboration with the health staff at Zanzibar's main hospital, Danish researchers have developed and introduced a short guide on childbirth care. The booklet seems to have had a significant effect, according to new research from the University of Copenhagen. After the guidelines were introduced, the number of stillbirths at the hospital fell by 33 per cent. The study reveals an opportunity to customise clinical guidelines more effectively to low-income countries, according to the researchers.

How the smallest bacterial pathogens outwit host immune defences by stealth mechanisms

Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
Despite their relatively small genome, mycoplasmas can cause persistent and difficult-to-treat infections in humans and animals. A study by Vetmeduni Vienna has shown how mycoplasmas escape the immune response. Mycoplasmas 'mask' themselves: They use their small genome in a clever way and compensate for the loss of an enzyme that is important for this process. This could be shown for the first time in vivo, thus representing a breakthrough in the research of bacterial pathogens.

RANKL expressed by osteocytes has an important role in orthodontic tooth movement

Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) researchers revealed that RANKL expressed by osteocytes is essential for the bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement. This result can facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies in orthodontics.

How obesity promotes breast cancer

Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
Obesity leads to the release of cytokines into the bloodstream which impact the metabolism of breast cancer cells, making them more aggressive as a result. Scientists from Helmholtz Zentrum München, Technische Universität München (TUM), and Heidelberg University Hospital report on this in 'Cell Metabolism'. The team has already been able to halt this mechanism with an antibody treatment.

Gamma rays will reach beyond the limits of light

Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
Researchers have discovered a new way to produce high energy photon beams. The new method makes it possible to produce these gamma rays in a highly efficient way, compared with today's technique. The obtained energy is a billion times higher than the energy of photons in visible light. These high intensity gamma rays significantly exceed all known limits, and pave the way towards new fundamental studies.

High field magnet at BER II: Insight into a hidden order

Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
A specific uranium compound has puzzled researchers for thirty years. Although the crystal structure is simple, no one understands exactly what is happening once it is cooled below a certain temperature. Apparently, a 'hidden order' emerges, whose nature is completely unknown.Now physicists have characterised this hidden order state more precisely and studied it on a microscopic scale. To accomplish this, they utilised the High-Field Magnet at the HZB that permits neutron experiments to be conducted under conditions of extremely high magnetic fields.

Novel 'converter' heralds breakthrough in ultra-fast data processing at nanoscale

Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
A research team from the National University of Singapore has recently invented a novel 'converter' that can harness the speed and small size of plasmons for high frequency data processing and transmission in nanoelectronics.

New function in gene-regulatory protein discovered

Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
Researchers at Umeå and Stockholm universities in Sweden and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in the US have published a new study in the journal Molecular Cell. In the article, they show how the protein CBP affects the expression of genes through its interaction with the basal machinery that reads the instructions in our DNA.

Correction of known position errors in a spherical

Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
The experimental validation of an efficient iterative technique for compensating known position errors in a spherical near to far-field transformation (NTFFT) for elongated antennas using a minimum number of near-field (NF) measurements has been provided. This transformation exploits a non-redundant sampling representation of the voltage detected by the probe obtained by modeling a long antenna with a prolate ellipsoid.

Experts recommend fewer lab tests for hospitalized patients

Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
In a review article publishing this week in JAMA Internal Medicine, physicians at Johns Hopkins, along with experts from several other institutions across north America, compiled published evidence and crafted an experience-based quality improvement blueprint to reduce repetitive lab testing for hospitalized patients.

Waterside lighting drastically disrupts wildlife in the surrounding ecosystem

Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
Researchers in Germany find that streetlights near waterways attract flying insects from the water and change the predator community living in the grass beneath the lights. The findings show that artificial night-time lighting could have implications for the surrounding ecosystem and biodiversity, which should be considered when designing new lighting concepts.

Personal omics data informative for precision health and preventive care

Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
Multi-omics profiling, the measurement and analysis of a person's genome along with other biomolecular traits, is an important step toward personal health management that provides valuable, actionable information, according to findings presented at the American Society of Human Genetics 2017 Annual Meeting in Orlando, Fla.

Physical inactivity and restless sleep exacerbate genetic risk of obesity

Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
Low levels of physical activity and inefficient sleep patterns intensify the effects of genetic risk factors for obesity, according to results of a large-scale study presented at the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) 2017 Annual Meeting in Orlando, Fla. These results confirm and strengthen previous findings based on self-reported activity.

Cool roofs have water saving benefits too

Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
The energy and climate benefits of cool roofs have been well established: By reflecting rather than absorbing the sun's energy, light-colored roofs keep buildings, cities, and even the entire planet cooler. Now a new study by the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has found that cool roofs can also save water by reducing how much is needed for urban irrigation.

Carbon coating gives biochar its garden-greening power

Jue, 10/19/2017 - 22:00
A Nature Communications study, led by Germany's University of Tuebingen and published Oct. 20, demonstrated how composting of biochar creates a very thin organic coating that significantly improves the biochar's fertilizing capabilities.

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