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London's low emission zone improved air quality but no major benefit to child lung health

Mar, 11/13/2018 - 23:00
Peer-reviewed / Observational study / PeopleLow emission zones are now in place in 200 cities across Europe, but London findings suggest that interventions that deliver larger reductions in emissions may be needed

Cold Super-Earth found orbiting second-closest star system to our own

Mar, 11/13/2018 - 23:00
An international team including five Carnegie astronomers has discovered a frozen Super-Earth orbiting Barnard's star, the closest single star to our own Sun. The Planet Finding Spectrograph on Carnegie's Magellan II telescope was integral to the discovery. To find this cold Super-Earth, the team combined 20 years of data from seven different instruments, all of which were 'stitched' together to form one of the largest and most-extensive datasets ever used for this method of planet detection.

Astronomers discover super-Earth around Barnard's star

Mar, 11/13/2018 - 23:00
Astronomers have discovered a planet in orbit around one of the closest stars to the Sun, Barnard's star.

Super-Earth orbiting Barnard's Star

Mar, 11/13/2018 - 23:00
The nearest single star to the Sun hosts an exoplanet at least 3.2 times as massive as Earth -- a so-called super-Earth. One of the largest observing campaigns to date using data from a world-wide array of telescopes, including ESO's planet-hunting HARPS instrument, have revealed this frozen, dimly lit world. The newly discovered planet is the second-closest known exoplanet to the Earth. Barnard's star is the fastest moving star in the night sky.

Combination of two immunotherapies shows activity in non-small cell lung cancer patients

Mar, 11/13/2018 - 23:00
A combination of two drugs, which prompt the body's immune system to identify and kill cancer cells, is a safe treatment for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer and has shown some signs of efficacy. The research is presented at the 30th EORTC-NCI-AACR Symposium on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics in Dublin, Ireland.

Difficult-to-treat bowel cancers respond in first study of new drug combination

Mar, 11/13/2018 - 23:00
Early results from a phase I trial in a small group of patients with advanced cancer using two drugs (nivolumab and pixatimod) that stimulate the immune system report that patients with bowel cancer may benefit from the combination. The research is presented at the 30th EORTC-NCI-AACR Symposium on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics in Dublin, Ireland.

Drug combination makes cancer disappear in mice with neuroblastoma

Mar, 11/13/2018 - 23:00
Researchers investigating new treatments for neuroblastoma -- one of the most common childhood cancers -- have found that a combination of two drugs made tumors disappear in mice, making it more effective than any other drugs tested in these animals. The research is presented at the 30th EORTC-NCI-AACR Symposium on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics in Dublin, Ireland.

Study of 2,000 children suggests London air pollution is restricting lung development

Mar, 11/13/2018 - 23:00
Children exposed to diesel-dominated air pollution in London are showing poor lung capacity, putting them at risk of lifelong breathing disorders, according to a study led by Queen Mary University of London, King's College London & University of Edinburgh

Half of older patients exposed to potentially inappropriate prescribing

Mar, 11/13/2018 - 23:00
Around half of older patients are exposed to potentially inappropriate prescribing, each year, and hospitalisation is independently associated with an increased risk, finds a study in Ireland published by The BMJ today.

Certain diabetes drugs linked to increased risk of lower limb amputation

Mar, 11/13/2018 - 23:00
Use of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors to treat type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of lower limb amputation and diabetic ketoacidosis (a serious diabetes complication) compared with another group of drugs called glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) receptor agonists, finds a study in The BMJ today.

Low carb diets can help maintain weight loss by increasing number of calories burned

Mar, 11/13/2018 - 23:00
A low carbohydrate diet could help people maintain their weight loss by increasing the number of calories burned, finds a large US feeding trial published by The BMJ today.

Climate simulations project wetter, windier hurricanes

Mar, 11/13/2018 - 23:00
New supercomputer simulations by climate scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have shown that climate change intensified the amount of rainfall in recent hurricanes such as Katrina, Irma, and Maria by 5 to 10 percent. They further found that if those hurricanes were to occur in a future world that is warmer than present, those storms would have even more rainfall and stronger winds.

Is the rise in blood pressure with age a consequence of the western lifestyle?

Mar, 11/13/2018 - 23:00
A common belief in cardiology is that blood pressure (BP) increases with age, although studies find little evidence of that among non-Western adults in isolated communities. But does the association between age and BP differ in two isolated communities with different levels of Westernization? In this study, researchers examined the association between age and BP in two communities in a remote area of the Venezuelan rainforest inaccessible by land.

Mosquito genome opens new avenues for reducing bug-borne disease

Mar, 11/13/2018 - 23:00
Researchers have assembled a new and improved DNA catalogue for the mosquito Aedes aegypti. This tool will help researchers understand the insect's biology, and may lead to new strategies for preventing diseases like Zika and dengue.

Surgery, not antibiotics, should remain first-line treatment for appendicitis

Mar, 11/13/2018 - 23:00
Treating appendicitis with antibiotics as an alternative to surgical removal of the inflamed organ was found to be more costly in the long term and result in higher rates of hospital readmissions, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

Improved mosquito reference genome assembly produced using long-read sequencing

Mar, 11/13/2018 - 23:00
A new comprehensive map of mosquito DNA has been assembled using long-read sequencing technology from California-based Pacific Biosciences. The improved reference genome assembly, published in Nature, could help scientists combat the pest and infectious diseases it spreads, including Zika, dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever.

A new approach to detecting cancer earlier from blood tests: Study

Mar, 11/13/2018 - 23:00
Cancer scientists led by principal investigator Dr. Daniel De Carvalho at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre have combined 'liquid biopsy,' epigenetic alterations and machine learning to develop a blood test to detect and classify cancer at its earliest stages.

Houston's urban sprawl increased rainfall, flooding during Hurricane Harvey

Mar, 11/13/2018 - 23:00
Princeton and University of Iowa researchers found that Houston's urban landscape directly contributed to the torrential rainfall and deadly flooding of Hurricane Harvey in 2017. They report in the journal Nature that Houston's risk for extreme flooding was 21 times greater due to urbanization. The results highlight the human role in extreme weather events and the need to consider urban and suburban development when calculating hurricane risk.

Youth-oriented mental health campaign shows evidence of success

Mar, 11/13/2018 - 23:00
Most people who face mental health problems either do not seek treatment or delay seeking help, a problem that California is targeting with a wide-ranging campaign to change public attitudes. A new study finds that a community engagement campaign in Los Angeles County to address mental health barriers -- a part of the statewide efforts -- had an impressive reach with the younger audience it targeted and showed signs of changing attitudes.

Helping an oral diabetes drug go the extra mile

Mar, 11/13/2018 - 23:00
Stephen Buckley and colleagues have reformulated a prospective therapy for type 2 diabetes (T2D) now under clinical investigation as an oral treatment.

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