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Research points to second chance for rejected antibiotic candidate

Jue, 12/14/2017 - 23:00
An antibiotic candidate compound shelved in the 1970s in favour of more worthwhile drugs could be worth a second look, new research has found.

Superradiance of an ensemble of nuclei excited by a free electron laser

Jue, 12/14/2017 - 23:00
A collaboration of scientists has succeeded in verifying a basic prediction of the quantum-mechanical behavior of resonant systems. In the study published in Nature Physics, they were able to carefully follow, one x-ray at a time, the decay of nuclei in a perfect crystal after excitation with a flash of x-rays. They observed a dramatic reduction of the time taken to emit the first x-ray as the number of x-rays increased.

Arctic sea ice affects and is affected by mid-latitude weather

Jue, 12/14/2017 - 23:00
New work by Dr Michael Kelleher and Prof James Screen from the University of Exeter find evidence that sea ice change is both a driver of and a response to atmospheric variability.

Indonesian island found to be unusually rich in cave paintings

Jue, 12/14/2017 - 23:00
A tiny Indonesian island, previously unexplored by archaeologists, has been found to be unusually rich in ancient cave paintings following a study by researchers from The Australian National University (ANU).

Columbia engineers develop floating solar fuels rig for seawater electrolysis

Jue, 12/14/2017 - 23:00
Chemical engineering professor Daniel Esposito has developed a novel photovoltaic-powered electrolysis device that can operate as a stand-alone platform that floats on open water. His floating PV-electrolyzer can be thought of as a 'solar fuels rig' that bears some resemblance to deep-sea oil rigs -- but it would produce hydrogen fuel from sunlight and water instead of extracting petroleum from beneath the sea floor.

Stroke patients receive clot-busting medication more than twice as fast as national rates

Jue, 12/14/2017 - 23:00
Kaiser Permanente hospitals in Northern California are delivering clot-busting medication to new stroke patients more than twice as fast as the national average. This follows the regionwide adoption of an integrated telemedicine program, according to new research published Dec. 15 in the journal Stroke.

Complete design of a silicon quantum computer chip unveiled

Jue, 12/14/2017 - 23:00
Research teams all over the world are exploring different ways to design a working computing chip that can integrate quantum interactions. Now, Australian and Dutch engineers believe they have cracked the problem, reimagining the silicon microprocessors we know to create a complete design for a quantum computer chip that can be manufactured using mostly standard industry processes and components.

Exposure to larger air particles linked to increased risk of asthma in children

Jue, 12/14/2017 - 23:00
Researchers at The Johns Hopkins University report statistical evidence that children exposed to airborne coarse particulate matter -- a mix of dust, sand and non-exhaust tailpipe emissions, such as tire rubber -- are more likely to develop asthma and need emergency room or hospital treatment for it than unexposed children.

Nanoparticles as a solution against antibiotic resistance?

Jue, 12/14/2017 - 23:00
Scientists of the Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany succeeded in developing an efficient method to treat mucoviscidosis. Crucial are nanoparticles that transport the antibiotics more efficiently to their destination. First of all, the active particles need to have a certain size to be able to reach the deeper airways and not to bounce off somewhere else before. Ultimately, they have to penetrate the thick layer of mucus on the airways as well as the lower layers of the bacteria biofilm.

New technique could make captured carbon more valuable

Jue, 12/14/2017 - 23:00
Carbon capture could help coal plants reduce emissions if economic challenges can be overcome. Turning captured carbon into a useable product is one solution. Scientists have developed an efficient process for turning captured carbon dioxide into syngas that can be used to make fuels and chemicals. Results were published Dec. 14 by Green Chemistry. "For the first time it was demonstrated that syngas can be directly produced from captured CO2," the researchers wrote.

Unusual thermal convection in a well-mixed fluid: Can a syrup separate when mixed?

Jue, 12/14/2017 - 23:00
Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University, have recently discovered unusual thermal convection in a uniform mixture of high and low viscosity liquids. Kobayashi and Kurita found that concentration fluctuations are enhanced by thermal convection when the two liquids have a large viscosity difference. Such mixtures are ubiquitously observed in nature, daily life, and manufacturing processes, e.g. mantle convection, syrup, polymer products. These results promise further insight into non-equilibrium phenomena in fluid mixtures with contrasting 'thickness.'

Higher blood sugar in early pregnancy raises baby's heart-defect risk

Jue, 12/14/2017 - 23:00
Higher blood sugar early in pregnancy raises the baby's risk of a congenital heart defect, even among mothers who do not have diabetes, according to a study led by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

Coarse particulate matter may increase asthma risk

Jue, 12/14/2017 - 23:00
Children exposed to coarse particulate matter may be more likely to develop asthma and to be treated in an ER or be hospitalized for the condition, according to new research published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

A model of Mars-like protoplanets shed light on early solar activity

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
A scientist from Siberian Federal University (SFU) and his colleagues from Austria and Germany constructed a physical and mathematical model of Mars- and Venus-sized planet formation. The team concluded that Mars had no chances to develop a thick atmosphere and biosphere. In the case of Venus it depended on solar activity: according to the scientists, it managed to keep its atmosphere due to the fact that young Sun was not very active. The study was published in Icarus.

Behaviour of millions still shaped by Industrial Revolution

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
The Industrial Revolution of 200 years ago, powered by coal and steam engines, laid the foundations of modern society. World-first QUT-led research has found its effects are still felt and not in a good way. It reveals that people living in the former industrial heartlands of the UK and the US are more disposed to negative emotions such as anxiety and depressive moods, more impulsive and more likely to struggle with planning and self-motivation.

New cellular approach found to control progression of chronic kidney disease

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
Researchers have demonstrated for the first time that extracellular vesicles -- tiny protein-filled structures -- isolated from amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) can be used to effectively slow the progression of kidney damage in mice with a type of chronic kidney disease. The findings, by a research team at the Saban Research Institute of Children's Hospital Los Angeles, provide new insights about the mechanisms of kidney disease and point to a new approach for improved treatments.

Music streaming sites benefit indie singers at the expense of top 100 artists

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
While free or low cost music streaming sources like Spotify decrease the use of paid music platforms, such as iTunes, a new study in the INFORMS journal Marketing Science, shows they significantly increase exposure for and access to lesser known or indie artists that fall outside the top 100 or even top 500 listings.

Offbeat brainwaves during sleep make older adults forget

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
Like swinging a tennis racket during a ball toss to serve an ace, slow and speedy brainwaves during deep sleep must sync up at exactly the right moment to hit the save button on new memories, according to new UC Berkeley research.

Cancer immunotherapy may work better in patients with specific genes

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
Investigators have been trying to understand why and have recently found how an individual's own genes can play a role in the response to the immunotherapy drugs.

Scientists pinpoint gene to blame for poorer survival rate in early-onset breast cancer patients

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
A new study led by scientists at the University of Southampton has found that inherited variation in a particular gene may be to blame for the lower survival rate of patients diagnosed with early-onset breast cancer.

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