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Ants, acorns and climate change

Jue, 08/16/2018 - 22:00
The relatively swift adaptability of tiny, acorn-dwelling ants to warmer environments could help scientists predict how other species might evolve in the crucible of global climate change, according to Case Western Reserve biologists.

Historically black schools pay more to issue bonds, researchers find

Jue, 08/16/2018 - 22:00
After examining the underwriting fees -- the fees that underwriters charge a school to bring a bond offering to investors -- Paul Gao and his co-authors found that HBCU issuance costs were about 20 percent higher than for non-HBCUs.

For children with complex medical situations, a new roadmap for improving health

Jue, 08/16/2018 - 22:00
A team of UCLA researchers has developed a set of health outcome measures for children with medical complexity, using a software program that aggregates the latest research and expertise about how to treat their conditions. The team's work, published in the September issue of the journal Pediatrics, proposes a standard to shape the ideal model of care for such children.

More efficient security for cloud-based machine learning

Jue, 08/16/2018 - 22:00
A novel encryption method devised by MIT researchers secures data used in online neural networks, without dramatically slowing their runtimes. This approach holds promise for using cloud-based neural networks for medical-image analysis and other applications that use sensitive data.

16 going on 66: Will you be the same person 50 years from now?

Jue, 08/16/2018 - 22:00
From 16 to 66 your personality will change and over time you will generally become more emotionally stable. But don't compare yourself to others; those who are the most emotionally stable when young are probably going to continue being the most stable as they age. A University of Houston psychologist reports the findings in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Progress toward personalized medicine

Jue, 08/16/2018 - 22:00
A few little cells that are different from the rest can have a big effect. For example, individual cancer cells may be resistant to a specific chemotherapy -- causing a relapse in a patient who would otherwise be cured. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, scientists have now introduced a microfluidics-based chip for the manipulation and subsequent nucleic-acid analysis of individual cells. The technique uses local electric fields to highly efficiently 'trap' the cells (dielectrophoresis).

Scientists examine the relative impact of proximity to seed sources

Jue, 08/16/2018 - 22:00
A new research study published in the journal Invasive Plant Science and Management tackles an important, unresolved question in the biology of invasive plants. Which is most important to the establishment of new invasive communities -- proximity to seed sources, canopy disturbance, or soil disturbance?

A novel synthetic antibody enables conditional 'protein knockdown' in vertebrates

Jue, 08/16/2018 - 22:00
The research groups led by Dr. Jörg Mansfeld of the Biotechnology Center of the TU Dresden (BIOTEC) and Dr. Caren Norden of the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics (MPI-CBG) have developed a novel synthetic antibody that paves the way for an improved functional analysis of proteins.

Robots as tools and partners in rehabilitation

Jue, 08/16/2018 - 22:00
Why trust should play a crucial part in the development of intelligent machines for medical therapies.

Energy-efficient spin current can be controlled by magnetic field and temperature

Jue, 08/16/2018 - 22:00
Up to now, electronic computer components have been run on electricity, generating unwanted heat. If spin current were employed instead, computers and similar devices could be operated in a much more energy-efficient manner. Researchers have now discovered an effect that could make such a transition to spin current a reality.

Novel nanoparticle-based approach detects and treats oral plaque without drugs

Jue, 08/16/2018 - 22:00
When the good and bad bacteria in our mouth become imbalanced, the bad bacteria form a biofilm (aka plaque), which can cause cavities, and if left untreated over time, can lead to cardiovascular and other inflammatory diseases like diabetes and bacterial pneumonia. A team of researchers from the University of Illinois has recently devised a practical nanotechnology-based method for detecting and treating the harmful bacteria that cause plaque and lead to tooth decay and other detrimental conditions.

AI could make dodgy lip sync dubbing a thing of the past

Jue, 08/16/2018 - 22:00
Researchers have developed a system using artificial intelligence that can edit the facial expressions of actors to accurately match dubbed voices, saving time and reducing costs for the film industry.

Scientists identify enzyme that could help accelerate biofuel production

Jue, 08/16/2018 - 22:00
Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology have honed in on an enzyme belonging to the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) family as a promising target for increasing biofuel production from the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

To find and disarm: Scientists develop platform to kill cancer cells

Jue, 08/16/2018 - 22:00
The new treatment will serve as both diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors. This breakthrough in the technologies of cancer diagnosis and treatment was made by an interdisciplinary Russian-German collaboration of chemists, physicists, and biologists from NUST MISIS, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University (RNRMU), and the University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany).

Scientists find titanium dioxide from sunscreen is polluting beaches

Jue, 08/16/2018 - 22:00
Scientists have found that sunscreen from bathers releases significant quantities of polluting TiO2 (titanium dioxide) into the sea. This has the potential to harm marine life. This work, which comes from research on beaches in the South of France, was presented at the Goldschmidt geochemistry conference in Boston (see below).

Color effects from transparent 3D printed nanostructures

Jue, 08/16/2018 - 22:00
Structural coloration means that the microstructure of an object causes various colors to appear. For industry, this is an attractive alternative to coloring with pigments. But so far, scientists had primarily experimented with nanostructures observed in nature, or with simple, regular designs. Computer scientists from IST Austria and KAUST now take a different, innovative approach: their tool automatically creates 3D print templates for nanostructures for user-defined colors, and their structures do not follow any particular pattern.

Researchers develop irregular-shaped laser to tackle laser instability

Jue, 08/16/2018 - 22:00
An international research team of scientists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Yale University and Imperial College London has designed a new way to build high-powered lasers that could result in stable beams, overcoming a long-standing limitation in conventional lasers. In high-powered lasers, which are used in materials processing, laser surgery and LiDar, laser instabilities often occur that limit their usage.

Patients, doctors dissatisfied by Electronic Health Records

Jue, 08/16/2018 - 22:00
Electronic Health Records are intended to streamline and improve access to information -- and have been shown to improve quality of care -- but a new study shows they also leave both doctors and patients unsatisfied, even after full implementation.

Prescriptions for opioid use disorder treatment, opioid pain relievers after ACA Medicaid expansion

Jue, 08/16/2018 - 22:00
Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was associated with an overall increase in people filling prescriptions for buprenorphine with naloxone, which is a treatment for opioid use disorder, as well as an increase in people filling prescriptions for opioid pain relievers (OPRs) paid for by Medicaid in a data analysis from five states.

Better access to quality cancer care may reduce rural and urban disparities

Jue, 08/16/2018 - 22:00
When enrolled in a cancer clinical trial, the differences in survival rates between rural and urban patients are significantly reduced, SWOG study results show.

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