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Actualizado: hace 17 horas 28 mins

Observations of nearby supernova and associated jet cocoon provide new insights on gamma-ray bursts

Mié, 01/16/2019 - 23:00
An international team of researchers including Chryssa Kouveliotou, a professor of physics at the George Washington University, discovered the missing link connecting hypernovae to GRBs in the form of a hot cocoon around the jets of matter expelled by the central engine as these spread through the outer layers of the progenitor star.

Ultraviolet disinfection 97.7 percent effective in eliminating pathogens in hospital settings

Mié, 01/16/2019 - 23:00
Using ultraviolet (UV) disinfection technology to reduce the risk of hospital-acquired infections eliminated up to 97.7 percent.

Orchards in natural habitats draw bee diversity, improve apple production

Mié, 01/16/2019 - 23:00
Apple orchards surrounded by agricultural lands are visited by a less diverse collection of bee species than orchards surrounded by natural habitats, according to a new Cornell University-led study, published in the journal Science.

UCLA scientists create a renewable source of cancer-fighting T cells

Mié, 01/16/2019 - 23:00
A study by UCLA researchers is the first to demonstrate a technique for coaxing pluripotent stem cells -- which can give rise to every cell type in the body and which can be grown indefinitely in the lab -- into becoming mature T cells capable of killing tumor cells.

Understanding our early human ancestors: Australopithecus sediba

Mié, 01/16/2019 - 23:00
Following the 2008 discovery of Malapa in the Cradle of Humankind, South Africa by Lee Berger of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, where two of the most complete skeletons of early human ancestors were found, a new hominin species, 'Australopithecus sediba (Au. sediba),' was named. 'PaleoAnthropology' has published a special issue with full descriptions of the hominin fossil material, body size and proportions, and walking mechanics, including 3D animations of 'Au. sediba' walking.

Can a critic-turned-believer sway others? The case of genetically modified foods

Mié, 01/16/2019 - 23:00
When an advocate for one side of an issue announces that he or she now believes the opposite, can that message affect others' views? Research from the Annenberg Public Policy Center shows that such a conversion message can influence public attitudes. Using video of environmentalist Mark Lynas speaking about his change from an opponent of genetically modified crops to an advocate, researchers found that message had a greater impact than his direct advocacy message.

Researchers identify brain cells likely involved in memories of eating that influence next meal

Mié, 01/16/2019 - 23:00
Brain cells involved in memory play an important role after a meal in reducing future eating behavior, a finding that could be key in understanding and fighting obesity, according to a study led by Georgia State University.

New thermoelectric material delivers record performance

Mié, 01/16/2019 - 23:00
Taking advantage of recent advances in using theoretical calculations to predict the properties of new materials, researchers reported Thursday the discovery of a new class of half-Heusler thermoelectric compounds, including one with a record high figure of merit -- a metric used to determine how efficiently a thermoelectric material can convert heat to electricity.

Size matters -- To livebearer fish, big fins are a big deal

Mié, 01/16/2019 - 23:00
In a new paper, biologists from the University of California, Riverside, studied the evolution of 40 molly and Limia species, and concluded dorsal fin displays arose first for males to compete with other males, only later being used in courtship displays to females. These changes in fin function went hand in hand with enlargement of the male dorsal fin. The fins reached extreme sizes in a few species and appear to be associated with rapid evolution, especially in mollies.

New findings reveal surprising role of the cerebellum in reward and social behaviors

Mié, 01/16/2019 - 23:00
A study in rodents found that the brain's cerebellum -- known to play a role in motor coordination -- also helps control the brain's reward circuitry. Researchers found a direct neural connection from the cerebellum to the ventral tegmental area (a brain area long known to be involved in reward processing and encoding). The findings shed light on the brain circuits critical to the affective and social dysfunction seen across multiple psychiatric disorders.

Gene therapy blocks peripheral nerve damage in mice

Mié, 01/16/2019 - 23:00
Scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have developed a gene therapy that blocks axonal degeneration, preventing axon destruction in mice and suggesting a therapeutic strategy that could help prevent the loss of peripheral nerves in multiple conditions.

New study identifies specific obesity-related risk factors for kidney cancer

Mié, 01/16/2019 - 23:00
A new study confirms the long-suspected role of obesity as a risk factor for developing renal cell carcinoma (RCC), a type of kidney cancer, and identifies several specific obesity-related factors. These factors include multiple measures of obesity, diastolic blood pressure and fasting insulin. In contrast, the study found little evidence for an association with RCC risk for systolic blood pressure, circulating lipids, diabetes or fasting glucose.

Advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: Pembrolizumab prolongs survival

Mié, 01/16/2019 - 23:00
quamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common cancers of the skin and mucosa. Treatment options for the advanced stage have been very limited for patients with tumours of the head and neck, i.e. in the mouth, the pharynx or the larynx: If recurrences or metastases occur during or after platinum-based chemotherapy, the disease is generally considered incurable. The goal is then to prolong the remaining lifetime while maintaining the best possible quality of life.

Air pollution increases ER visits for breathing problems

Mié, 01/16/2019 - 23:00
As levels of ozone and fine particulate pollution (PM2.5) rise, more patients end up in the ER with breathing problems, according to the largest US study of air pollution and respiratory emergency room visits of patients of all ages. The study was published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

Combination therapy more effective in treating patients with leishmaniasis and HIV

Mié, 01/16/2019 - 23:00
The results of clinical trials conducted in Ethiopia by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi), in partnership with Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), the University of Gondar, and Addis Ababa University, open the way for more effective and safer treatments for people with both HIV and visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a group of patients who have historically suffered from poor treatment options. The results were published today in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases.

Wired for obesity

Mié, 01/16/2019 - 23:00
In a multi-center collaboration, scientists at Children's Hospital Los Angeles and University of Cambridge discover a set of genes that help to establish brain connections governing body weight.

Models of life

Mié, 01/16/2019 - 23:00
Friedrich Simmel und Aurore Dupin, researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), have for the first time created artificial cell assemblies that can communicate with each other. The cells, separated by fatty membranes, exchange small chemical signaling molecules to trigger more complex reactions, such as the production of RNA and other proteins.

Millions of Americans exposed to elevated nitrate levels in drinking water

Mié, 01/16/2019 - 23:00
More than 5.6 million Americans are exposed to nitrate in drinking water at levels that could cause health problems. In this first analysis of its kind, researchers also found that water systems with higher nitrate levels tend to serve communities with higher proportions of Hispanic residents. The findings could help inform programs to assist community water systems that might be vulnerable to contamination.

Telling stories using rhythmic gesture helps children improve their oral skills

Mié, 01/16/2019 - 23:00
For the first time it has been shown that a brief training session with rhythmic gestures has immediate benefits for narrative discourse in children of 5 and 6 years of age in a study published recently in Developmental Psychology led by Pilar Prieto, ICREA research professor and coordinator of the Prosodic Studies Group and of the Department of Translation and Language Sciences, together with her collaborators, Ingrid Vilà-Giménez and Alfonso Igualada (Cognition and Language Research Group, Open University of Catalonia).

Psychological distress is a risk factor for dementia

Mié, 01/16/2019 - 23:00
A new study suggests that vital exhaustion -- which can be perceived as an indicator of psychological distress -- is a risk factor for future risk of dementia.

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