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US methane emissions greater than thought, in recent years?

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Methane leakage from the US oil and natural gas supply chain is greater than previously estimated, researchers report. US oil and natural gas production has been growing steadily in the last decade.

Northwestern researchers achieve unprecedented control of polymer grids

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
The first examples of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) were discovered in 2005, but quality has been poor and preparation methods uncontrolled. Now a Northwestern University research team is the first to produce high-quality versions of these materials, demonstrate their superior properties and control their growth. The team's two-step process produces organic polymers with crystalline, two-dimensional structures. The precision of the material's structure and the empty space its hexagonal pores provide will allow scientists to design new materials with desirable properties.

New research provides expanded insights into the brain's response to opioids

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Opioids are powerful painkillers that act on the brain, but they have a range of harmful side effects including addiction. Researchers from the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in collaboration with researchers from the Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria, University of Innsbruck, and the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, have developed a tool that gives deeper insights into the brain's response to opioids.

Antarctic ice sheet is melting, but rising bedrock below could slow it down

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
An international team of researchers has found that the bedrock below the remote West Antarctic Ice Sheet is rising much more rapidly than previously thought, in response to ongoing ice melt.

UM research identifies how snowshoe hares evolved to stay seasonally camouflaged

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Researchers at the University of Montana recently discovered that hybridization played an important role in snowshoe hares' ability to match their environment.

UBC researchers create matchmaking service

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
UBC researchers have matched small proteins, called peptides, with antibiotics so they can work together to combat hard-to-treat infections that don't respond well to drugs on their own.

Common psychiatric disorders share an overlapping genetic risk

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Investigators found that many common psychiatric disorders are deeply connected on a genetic level, sharing specific genetic risk factors, underscoring the need to recognize shared dimensions of brain dysfunction, and develop new treatment strategies. Results of this investigation have been published in the June 22, 2018 issue of the journal, Science.

Prop. 47 lessened racial disparities in drug arrests

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
In 2014, California voters approved Proposition 47, which reclassified drug possession offenses from felonies to misdemeanors, and in the process reduced the state's prison and jail populations. Now, a study out of UC San Francisco has quantified the effects of the ballot measure, which was at the leading edge of a national movement to reduce incarceration rates and change the criminal justice approach to substance use disorders.

Mice not only experience regret, but also learn to avoid it in the future

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
New research from the University of Minnesota publishing 21 June in the open access journal PLOS Biology from authors Brian M. Sweis, Mark J. Thomas, and A. David Redish has discovered that mice are capable of learning to plan ahead in order to avoid regret down the road even if there is no additional gain in rewards.

Water can be very dead, electrically speaking

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Water is one of the most fascinating substances on Earth and at the heart of its many unusual properties is high polarizability, a strong response to an applied electric field. Now researchers at the University of Manchester have found that on a microscopic scale water behaves very differently and its thin layers lose any polarizability, becoming electrically dead.

Psychiatric disorders share an underlying genetic basis

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
In a new international collaboration, researchers explored the genetic connections between brain disorders at a scale far eclipsing previous work on the subject. The team determined that psychiatric disorders share many genetic variants, while neurological disorders (such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's) appear more distinct. The results indicate that psychiatric disorders likely have important similarities at a molecular level, which current diagnostic categories do not reflect.

First ancient syphilis genomes decoded

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
An international research team has recovered the first historic genomes from the bacterium Treponema pallidum, which causes syphilis. It was previously not thought possible to recover DNA of this bacterium from ancient samples. In the study, published in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, the researchers were able to distinguish genetically between the subspecies of the disease that cause syphilis and that cause yaws, which are not readily distinguishable in skeletal remains.

Einstein proved right in another galaxy

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
An international team of astronomers have made the most precise test of gravity outside our own solar system.

A mechanism behind choosing alcohol over healthy rewards is found

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Changes in a brain signalling system contribute to the development of alcohol addiction-like behaviours in rats, according to a new study led by researchers at Linköping University, Sweden. The findings, to be published in Science, indicate a similar mechanism in humans.

Fast rising bedrock below West Antarctica reveals an extremely fluid Earth mantle

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
An international team of researchers, with a new study published in Science with DTU Space as lead author, finds that the bedrock below the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is rising much more rapidly than expected, revealing a very different Earth structure than previously believed. This discovery has important implications in understanding the present and future climate changes in Antarctica.

MIT scientists discover fundamental rule of brain plasticity

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
A series of complex experiments in the visual cortex of mice has yielded a simple rule about plasticity: When a synapse strengthens, others immediately nearby weaken.

Bedrock in West Antarctica rising at surprisingly rapid rate

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
The earth is rising in one part of Antarctica at one of the fastest rates ever recorded, as ice rapidly disappears and weight is lifted off the bedrock, a new international study has found. The findings have surprising and positive implications for the survival of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), which scientists had previously thought could be doomed because of the effects of climate change.

Caffeine from four cups of coffee protects the heart with the help of mitochondria

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
A new study shows that a caffeine concentration equivalent to four cups of coffee promotes the movement of a regulatory protein into mitochondria, enhancing their function and protecting cardiovascular cells from damage. The work, by Judith Haendeler and Joachim Altschmied of the Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University and the IUF-Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine in Duesseldorf, Germany, and colleagues, publishes June 21 in the open access journal PLOS Biology.

How competition and cooperation between bacteria shape antibiotic resistance

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
New computational simulations suggest that the effects of antibiotics on a bacterial community depend on whether neighboring species have competitive or cooperative relationships, as well as their spatial arrangement. Sylvie Estrela of Yale University and Sam Brown of the Georgia Institute of Technology present these findings in PLOS Computational Biology.

Cross-species prion adaptation depends on prion replication environment

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
A hamster prion that replicated under conditions of low RNA levels in mouse brain material resulted in altered disease features when readapted and transmitted back to hamsters, according to new research presented in PLOS Pathogens by Elizaveta Katorcha of the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, and colleagues.

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