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Suicide molecules kill any cancer cell

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
A super assassin hidden in every cell forces the cell to commit suicide if it becomes cancerous, reports a new study, the first to identify molecules to trigger a fail-safe mechanism that may protect us from cancer. The mechanism -- RNA suicide molecules -- can potentially be developed into a novel form of cancer therapy. Cancer cells treated with the RNA molecules never become resistant to them because they simultaneously eliminate multiple genes that cancer cells need for survival.

Key psychiatric drug target comes into focus

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
One way or another, many psychiatric drugs work by binding to receptor molecules in the brain that are sensitive to the neurotransmitter dopamine, a chemical signal that is central to how our experiences shape our behavior. But because scientists still don't understand the differences between the many kinds of dopamine receptors present on brain cells, most of these drugs are 'messy,' binding to multiple different dopamine receptor molecules and leading to serious side effects ranging from movement disorders to pathological gambling.

Renewable resource: To produce vital lipoic acid, sulfur is used, then replenished

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
New research shows how a protein is consumed, then reconstituted, during the production of a compound required for converting energy from food into a form that can be used by our cells. The results could help scientists to understand why humans with a fatal condition -- defects in an iron-sulfur carrier gene -- have deficiencies in this lipoic acid compound.

Water striders illustrate evolutionary processes

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
How do new species arise and diversify in nature? Natural selection offers an explanation, but the genetic and environmental conditions behind this mechanism are still poorly understood. Researchers have just figured out how water striders (family Veliidae) of the genus Rhagovelia developed fan-like structures at the tips of their legs. These structures allow them to move upstream against the current, a feat beyond the abilities of other water striders that don't have fans.

Key psychiatric drug target comes into focus

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Researchers at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, UC San Francisco, and Stanford University solved the crystal structure of a specific dopamine receptor called D4 at an incredibly high resolution -- the highest for any dopamine, serotonin, or adrenalin receptor to date -- allowing them to design a new compound to precisely probe these potential drug targets like never before with the hope of designing drugs with fewer side effects.

Memory rides the ripples for long-term storage

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Dion Khodagholy and colleagues have observed coordination between high-frequency oscillations (or brain waves) called 'ripples' in the rat hippocampus and parts of the brain called the association cortex.

The evolution of fan-propelled water strider insects into new environments

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Researchers have discovered two genes underlying the evolution of a water striding insect fan used for locomotion, which they say were essential for survival in fast-flowing stream environments.

The mouth may act as a hub for intestinal disease-causing bacteria

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Scientists say the mouth may act as a reservoir for intestinal disease-causing bacteria that exacerbate conditions including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and Crohn's disease (CD).

Study shows how nerves drive prostate cancer

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
In a study in today's issue of Science, researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, part of Montefiore Medicine, report that certain nerves sustain prostate cancer growth by triggering a switch that causes tumor vessels to proliferate. Their earlier research -- which first implicated nerves in fueling prostate cancer -- has prompted Montefiore-Einstein to conduct a pilot study testing whether beta blockers (commonly used for treating hypertension) can kill cancer cells in tumors of men diagnosed with prostate cancer.

Liquid metal discovery ushers in new wave of chemistry and electronics

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Researchers use liquid metal to create atom-thick 2-D never before seen in nature. The research could transform how we do chemistry and could also be applied to enhance data storage and make faster electronics.

Study reveals key molecular link in major cell growth pathway

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
A team of scientists led by Whitehead Institute has uncovered a surprising molecular link that connects how cells regulate growth with how they sense and make available the nutrients required for growth. The researchers' findings also implicate a new protein, SLC38A9, as a potential drug target in pancreatic cancer.

Scientists map monogamy, jealousy in the monkey mind

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
A recent study at the California National Primate Research Center studied jealousy in pair-bonded titi monkeys. The study was part of a larger study examining the neurobiology of pair-bonded primate species.

CCNY psychologists develop new model that links emotions and mental health

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
For decades psychologists have studied how people regulate emotions using a multitude of ways to conceptualize and assess emotion regulation. Now a recent study published this week in the journal PLOS ONE by Elliot Jurist and David M. Greenberg of The City College of New York, shows how a new assessment model can give clinicians an exciting new way to think about clinical diagnoses including anxiety, mood, and developmental disorders.

Rheumatoid Arthritis linked to an increased risk of COPD

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
New research suggests that rheumatoid arthritis may increase the risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Creating a better RNA switch

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Northwestern University researchers have developed a new RNA switch that activates genes thousands of times better than nature and has applications in diagnostics and metabolic engineering.

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Many of today's technologies, such as, solid-state lighting, transistors in computer chips, and batteries in cell phones rely simply on the charge of the electron and how it moves through the material. In certain materials, such as the monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), electrons can be selectively placed into a chosen electronic valley using optical excitation.

Veterans study reports reduction in suicide ideation after HBOT

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
A case control study of armed forces veterans with mild traumatic brain injury or persistent post-concussion syndrome, with or without PTSD, has found significant improvements in persistent post-concussion syndrome and PTSD symptoms, memory, intelligence quotient, attention, cognition, depression, quality of life, and brain blood flow, as well as a significant reduction in suicidal ideation and anxiety following hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

How genes and environment interact to raise risk of congenital heart defects

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Infants of mothers with diabetes have a three- to five-fold increased risk of congenital heart defects. Such developmental defects are likely caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. However, the molecular mechanisms by which maternal diabetes disrupts normal heart development in genetically susceptible individuals remain unclear. In a new study, researchers describe a gene-environment interaction resulting in congenital heart defects in both mouse and fly model systems.

Researchers find shifting relationship between flexibility, modularity in the brain

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
A Rice University study has found negative correlation between flexibility and modularity in the brain. Understanding how they interact is essential to the advance of neuroscience, the researchers said. Flexibility allows for better performance on complex tasks, and modularity allows proficiency on simple tasks.

Specialized communication narratives help couples deal with miscarriage

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Anywhere from 10 to 25 percent of clinically recognized pregnancies end in loss, according to the American Pregnancy Association, making miscarriage a socially significant health issue. A recent University of Missouri study examined how men also have to cope with their partner's miscarriage and how married couples can use 'communicated perspective-taking' to cope. The findings could help couples cope with miscarriage while also informing practitioners who treat anxiety and stress.

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