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Do consent decrees adequately address police misconduct?

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
In recent years, the US Department of Justice has forced reform in police departments through the consent decree process, in which departments have agreed to take specific actions without admitting fault or guilt.

Exposure to particulate matter from traffic and residential heating

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
A study by researchers at the University of Tartu found that exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (PM) could be associated with cardiac diseases among people in the city of Tartu, Estonia, whereas PM from residential heating did not. Results of the study adds valuable information to the current knowledge as it they confirms the link between health effects and low-level PM, and association is different depending on the PM source.

What will happen to European criminal law after Brexit?

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
Britain will not be able to select which sections of the European Union criminal law system it abides by, as was previously the case. This is according to Valsamis Mitsilegas of Queen Mary University of London in the UK, author of an article in Springer's journal Criminal Law Forum.

A new T-cell population for cancer immunotherapy

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
Scientists at the University of Basel in Switzerland have, for the first time, described a new T cell population that can recognize and kill tumor cells. The open access journal eLife has published the results.

You don't see what I see?

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
Kyoto University researchers shows that an ability to perceive differences between similar images depends on the cultural background of the viewer.

A review of denoising medical images using machine learning approaches

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
This paper attempts to identify suitable machine learning approach for image denoising of radiology based medical application.

Crazy for ant eggs

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
The 'yellow crazy ant' lays trophic eggs to provide nutrition to their larvae.

Recommended daily protein intake too low for the elderly

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
The minimum protein requirement for healthy adults has been set almost 15 years ago to 0.80 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight. There is a growing body of evidence that this recommended dietary allowance (RDA) is not sufficient for older persons and that they would benefit from eating more proteins.

Two missing World War II B-25 bombers documented by Project Recover off Papua New Guinea

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
Two B-25 bombers associated with American servicemen missing in action from World War II were recently documented in the waters off Papua New Guinea by Project Recover -- a collaborative team of marine scientists, archaeologists and volunteers who have combined efforts to locate aircraft and associated MIAs from World War II.

'Pregnant' housefly males demonstrate the evolution of sex determination

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
An international team headed up by researchers from the University of Zurich has discovered the gene that determines the male sex in houseflies. Surprisingly, the sex-determining mechanisms are not the same for all houseflies -- they depend on where the insects live. This knowledge not only helps us better understand the evolution of sex determination, but also aids in the control of agricultural pests or carriers of disease.

Phone-based transitional care program has high engagement among surgical patients

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
A research team used the framework of a successful phone-based transitional care program adapted to the needs of surgical patients, based on a systems engineering approach. The researchers found the program was feasible for hospital staff to implement and provided a positive experience for patients, according to study results published as an 'article in press' on the Journal of the American College of Surgeons website ahead of print publication.

Collecting real-time data for material microstructural evolution during radiation exposure

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
It may be surprising to learn that much remains unknown about radiation's effects on materials. To find answers, Massachusetts Institute of Technology researchers are developing techniques to explore the microstructural evolution and degradation of materials exposed to radiation. They report a dynamic option, this week in Applied Physics Letters, to continuously monitor the properties of materials being exposed to radiation during the exposure. This provides real-time information about a material's microstructural evolution.

Scientists uncover dietary strategy to address obesity using component in red chili

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
Scientists have discovered a dietary strategy that may address obesity by reducing endotoxemia, a major contributor to chronic, low-grade inflammation (CLGI). The researchers uncovered an interaction between dietary capsaicin (CAP), the major pungent component in red chili, and gut microbiota. This novel mechanism for the anti-obesity effect of CAP acts through prevention of microbial dysbiosis.

Mortality rates at teaching hospitals lower compared with non-teaching hospitals

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
Patients admitted to major teaching hospitals are less likely to die compared with patients admitted to minor teaching or non-teaching hospitals, according to a large national study from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

Neptune: Neutralizer-free plasma propulsion

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
Plasma propulsion concepts are gridded-ion thrusters that accelerate and emit more positively charged particles than negatively charged ones. To enable the spacecraft to remain charge-neutral, a 'neutralizer' injects electrons to exactly balance the positive ion charge in the exhaust beam, but this neutralizer requires additional power from the spacecraft. Researchers are investigating how the radio-frequency self-bias effect can be used to remove the neutralizer altogether. They report their work in this week's Physics of Plasmas.

Understanding stars: How tornado-shaped flow in a dynamo strengthens the magnetic field

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
A new simulation based on the von-Kármán-Sodium (VKS) dynamo experiment takes a closer look at how the liquid vortex created by the device generates a magnetic field. Researchers investigated the effects of fluid resistivity and turbulence on the collimation of the magnetic field, where the vortex becomes a focused stream. They report their findings this week in the journal Physics of Fluids.

Comparison of antibiotic treatments for cellulitis

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
Among patients with uncomplicated cellulitis, the use of an antibiotic regimen with activity against MRSA did not result in higher rates of clinical resolution compared to an antibiotic lacking MRSA activity; however, certain findings suggest further research may be needed to confirm these results, according to a study published by JAMA.

Mortality rates lower at major teaching hospitals

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
In an analysis that included more than 21 million Medicare discharges, admission to a major teaching hospital was associated with a lower overall 30-day risk of death compared with admission to a nonteaching hospital, according to a study published by JAMA.

Atomic structure of irradiated materials is more akin to liquid than glass

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
Materials exposed to neutron radiation tend to experience significant damage. At the nanoscale, these incident neutrons collide with a material's atoms, which then collide with each other. The resulting disordered atomic network resembles those seen in some glassy materials, which has led many in the field to use them in nuclear research. But the similarities between the materials may not be as useful as previously thought, according to this week's The Journal of Chemical Physics.

Online pulmonary rehabilitation not inferior to face-to-face rehab

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
Online pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was found to be as effective as face-to-face rehabilitation programs at improving patients' exercise capacity and symptom control, according to new research presented at the 2017 American Thoracic Society International Conference.

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