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Systematically studying slippery surfaces

EurekAlert! - Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
Polymer brushes are polymers grown on surfaces, and are attractive for use in lubrication and anti-fouling applications. Kyushu University researchers varied the length of the chain separating negatively and positively charged functional groups in polymer brushes to investigate how chain length affected the interaction of the polymer brushes with water. They found that the chain length influenced the ionic strength sensitivity for the hydration of the polymer brushes in water but not their water uptake or hydration structure.

Post-whaling recovery of Southern Hemisphere

EurekAlert! - Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
By 2100 some Southern Hemisphere whale species will not have reached half their pre-whaling numbers, while other species are expected to recover by 2050.

'Electronic skin' takes wearable health monitors to the next level

EurekAlert! - Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
Korean researchers developed a new, electronic skin which can track heart rate, respiration, muscle movement and other health data. The electronic skins offers several improvements over existing trackers, including greater flexibility, portability, and the ability to stick the self-adhesive patch.

Our hairy insides

EurekAlert! - Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
MIT engineers have predicted how tiny hairs lining blood vessels and intestines bend to flowing fluid. The results may help to design microfluidic devices such as hydraulic valves and diodes.

Link between cells associated with aging and bone loss

EurekAlert! - Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
Mayo Clinic researchers have reported a causal link between senescent cells -- the cells associated with aging and age-related disease -- and bone loss in mice. Targeting these cells led to an increase in bone mass and strength. The findings appear online in Nature Medicine.

Are there racial differences in cognitive outcomes based on BP targets?

EurekAlert! - Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
A new article published by JAMA Neurology investigates how various blood pressure targets for older patients treated for hypertension were associated with cognitive function and if racial differences existed in long-term cognitive outcomes.

What is the global prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder?

EurekAlert! - Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
An article published by JAMA Pediatrics estimates the global prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) among children and youth.

What hours are worked by women, men in dual-physician couples with kids?

EurekAlert! - Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
In dual-physician couples, women with children worked fewer hours than women without children but similar differences in hours worked were not seen among men, according to a new research letter published by JAMA Internal Medicine.

New tool identifies diabetes patients at risk for low blood sugar emergencies

EurekAlert! - Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
A team led by Kaiser Permanente researchers has developed and validated a practical tool for identifying diabetes patients who are at the highest risk for being admitted to an emergency department or hospital due to severe hypoglycemia, or very low blood sugar. Their results are published today in JAMA Internal Medicine.

Research reveals 'exquisite selectivity' of neuronal wiring in the cerebral cortex

EurekAlert! - Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
In a study appearing today in Nature Neuroscience, a team from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory uses advanced technologies to illuminate the connectivity pattern of chandelier cells, a distinctive kind of inhibitory cell type in the mammalian brain. They reveal for the first time how this candelabra-shaped cell interacts in a highly selective way with hundreds of excitatory cells in its neighborhood, receiving information from some, imparting information to others.

Scientists create 'diamond rain' that forms in the interior of icy giant planets

EurekAlert! - Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
In an experiment designed to mimic the conditions deep inside the icy giant planets of our solar system, scientists were able to observe 'diamond rain' for the first time as it formed in high-pressure conditions. Extremely high pressure squeezes hydrogen and carbon found in the interior of these planets to form solid diamonds that sink slowly down further into the interior.

Antarctic salt-loving microbes provide insights into evolution of viruses

EurekAlert! - Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
UNSW Sydney scientists studying microbes from some of the saltiest lakes in Antarctica have discovered a new way the microbes can share DNA that could help them grow and survive.The research, based on 18 months of water sampling in remote Antarctic locations, could throw light on the evolutionary history of viruses. The team discovered some of the microbes contained small molecules of DNA called plasmids.

FANTOM5 releases first integrated atlas of microRNA expression in human primary cells

EurekAlert! - Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
FANTOM, an international scientific consortium led by RIKEN, has created the first extensive atlas of microRNA expression in human primary cells. Leveraging the collection of RNA samples established as part of the fifth edition of FANTOM, the team has sequenced microRNA libraries of hundreds of human samples, including many cell types for which the microRNA presence had never been investigated before.

Comprehensive genomic analysis offers insights into causes of Wilms tumor development

EurekAlert! - Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
Mutations involving a large number of genes converge on two pathways during early kidney development that lead to Wilms tumor.

A holodeck for flies, fish and mice

EurekAlert! - Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
Inspired by Star Trek, biologists are enabling new experiments in virtual reality.

Zika virus stifles pregnant women's weakened immune system to harm baby, USC study finds

EurekAlert! - Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
The Zika virus suppresses a pregnant woman's immune system, enabling the virus to spread and increasing the chances an unborn baby will be harmed, study finds. The study is the first to report that the Zika virus targets specific white blood cells, handicapping a pregnant woman's immune system in a way that almost resembles HIV. Pregnant women are more prone to immune suppression. Zika exploits that weakness to infect and replicate.

Repairing damaged hearts with self-healing heart cells

EurekAlert! - Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
New research has discovered a potential means to trigger damaged heart cells to self-heal. The discovery could lead to groundbreaking forms of treatment for heart diseases. For the first time, researchers have identified a long non-coding ribonucleic acid (ncRNA) that regulates genes controlling the ability of heart cells to undergo repair or regeneration. This novel RNA, called 'Singheart,' may be targeted for treating heart failure in the future.

Back-to-school worries for parents? 1 in 3 very concerned bullying, cyberbullying

EurekAlert! - Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
What parents are most worried about as their children prepare to head back to school.

Into the wild for plant genetics

EurekAlert! - Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
A new paper by scientists at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew reveals the opportunities for portable, real-time DNA sequencing in plant identification and naming. Using a handheld DNA sequencing device they conducted the first genomic plant sequencing in the field at a fraction of the speed of traditional methods, offering exciting possibilities to conservationists and scientists the world over.

Have flowers devised the ultimate weapon of distraction?

EurekAlert! - Dom, 08/20/2017 - 22:00
Nectar, the high-energy 'honey' produced by flowers, might be a brilliant distraction technique to help protect a flower's reproductive parts, according to new research.Rather than merely providing a 'come-on' to bees and other insects to attract them to pollinate the flower, nectar could be playing a much more subtle and entrancing role.

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