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New study shows how a single binge drinking episode affects gene that regulates sleep

EurekAlert! - Lun, 06/18/2018 - 22:00
New findings from the University of Missouri School of Medicine explain how a single episode of binge drinking can affect the gene that regulates sleep, leading to sleep disruption in mice. The finding may shed light on how sleep problems can contribute to alcoholism in humans.

Kids grasp that you get what you pay for

EurekAlert! - Lun, 06/18/2018 - 22:00
From a young age, children have a nuanced understanding of fairness.

Scientists reveal how gut microbes 'recover' after antibiotic treatment

EurekAlert! - Lun, 06/18/2018 - 22:00
New insight on how antibiotics affect the gut microbiome -- the community of microbes that live inside us -- has been published in the journal eLife.

Are you sticking to your diet? Scientists may be able to tell from a blood sample

EurekAlert! - Lun, 06/18/2018 - 22:00
An analysis of small molecules called 'metabolites' in a blood sample may be used to determine whether a person is following a prescribed diet, scientists at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health have shown.

Study: Tax havens and limited regulation increase risk for shareholders

EurekAlert! - Lun, 06/18/2018 - 22:00
Some large, publicly held companies are incorporated in tax haven countries, ostensibly to increase value for shareholders. But new research finds that many such companies -- particularly those headquartered in countries with limited shareholder protections -- are more likely to engage in practices that benefit executives at the cost of their shareholders.

Cell type and environment influence protein turnover in the brain

EurekAlert! - Lun, 06/18/2018 - 22:00
Scientists have revealed that protein molecules in the brain are broken down and replaced at different rates, depending on where in the brain they are.

Hypnosis may help reduce fear of cancer treatment in children

EurekAlert! - Lun, 06/18/2018 - 22:00
Hypnosis could help to reduce the fear of medical procedures in children and young people with cancer.

Mysterious IceCube event may be caused by a tau neutrino

EurekAlert! - Lun, 06/18/2018 - 22:00
Theoretical physicists from Maint and Stanford calculate the origin of a high-energy particle track captured by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory.

Responses of the tropical atmospheric circulation to climate change

EurekAlert! - Lun, 06/18/2018 - 22:00
An international team describes the climate change-induced responses of the tropical atmospheric circulation and their impacts on the hydrological cycle. It also depicts the theoretically predicted changes and diagnose physical mechanisms for observational and model-projected trends in large-scale and regional climate.

Is the sky the limit?

EurekAlert! - Lun, 06/18/2018 - 22:00
What stops a species adapting to an ever-wider range of conditions, continuously expanding its geographic range? The biomathematician Jitka Polechová, an Elise Richter Fellow at the University of Vienna, has published a paper in PLoS Biology which explains the formation of species' range margins. The theory shows that just two compound parameters, important for both ecology and evolution of species, are fundamental to the stability of their range: the environmental heterogeneity and the size of the local population.

World's first intra-operative MRI-guided robot for bilateral stereotactic neurosurgery

EurekAlert! - Lun, 06/18/2018 - 22:00
A HKU Mechanical Engineering team led by Dr. Kwok Ka-wai recently designed the first neurosurgical robotic system capable of performing bilateral stereotactic neurosurgery inside a magnetic resonance imaging ('MRI') scanner. The team also conducted pre-clinical validation of the system with CUHK neurosurgeons, Dr Danny Chan Tat-ming and Professor Poon Wai-sang. This innovative technological breakthrough can facilitate the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

Diagnostics of genetic cardiac diseases using stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

EurekAlert! - Lun, 06/18/2018 - 22:00
A new study by Professors Martti Juhola and Katriina Aalto-Setälä of the University of Tampere in Finland demonstrates that with the use of artificial intelligence and machine learning, it is possible not only to accurately sort sick cardiac cell cultures from healthy ones, but also to differentiate between genetic cardiac diseases.

Lion conservation research can be bolstered by input from a wide-range of professionals

EurekAlert! - Lun, 06/18/2018 - 22:00
The conservation of lions, while also maintaining the well-being of people that live around them, is a complex problem that should be addressed by a wide-range of professionals working together. Rather than focusing solely on human-lion interaction, other factors such as the environment, wild prey and domesticated livestock need to be considered to get a full evaluation of the problem. This approach should help address the dramatic decrease in lion populations seen in recent years.

Museum collection reveals distribution of Carolina parakeet 100 years after its extinction

EurekAlert! - Lun, 06/18/2018 - 22:00
While 2018 marks the centenary of the death of the last captive Carolina parakeet -- North America's only native parrot, a team of researchers have shed new light on the previously known geographical range of the species. Their data paper, published in the open access Biodiversity Data Journal, is the most comprehensive occurrence dataset for the species ever produced.

Mechanism controlling multiple sclerosis risk identified

EurekAlert! - Lun, 06/18/2018 - 22:00
While the DNA sequence remains the same throughout a person's life, the expression of the encoded genes may change with time and contribute to disease development in genetically predisposed individuals. Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have now discovered a new mechanism of a major risk gene for multiple sclerosis (MS) that triggers disease through epigenetic regulation. They also found a protective genetic variant that reduces the risk for MS. The study is published in Nature Communications.

Spintronics: Controlling magnetic spin with electric fields

EurekAlert! - Lun, 06/18/2018 - 22:00
EPFL physicists have found a way to reverse electron spins using electric fields for the first time, paving the way for programmable spintronics technologies.

Game-changing finding pushes 3D-printing to the molecular limit

EurekAlert! - Lun, 06/18/2018 - 22:00
New University of Nottingham research proves that advanced materials containing molecules that switch states in response to environmental stimuli such as light can be fabricated using 3D printing.The study findings have the potential to vastly increase the functional capabilities of 3D-printed devices for industries such as electronics, healthcare and quantum computing.

D for danger! Speech sounds convey emotions

EurekAlert! - Lun, 06/18/2018 - 22:00
Individual speech sounds -- phonemes -- are statistically associated with negative or positive emotions in several languages, new research published in the journal Cognition by Bocconi Professor Zachary Estes, his Warwick colleague James Adelman and Bocconi student Martina Cossu shows. These associations help us quickly avoid dangers, because the phoneme-emotion associations are strongest at the beginning of the word and the phonemes that are spoken fastest tend to have a negative association

The first experimental discovery in the world of the propagation of plasma turbulence

EurekAlert! - Lun, 06/18/2018 - 22:00
The research group of NIFS together with collaborators in the United States applied the 'heat pulse modulation method' in the magnetic island produced intentionally in the tokamak 'Doublet III-D.' Temperature gradient inherent in the magnetically confined plasma causes turbulence while there is no turbulence in the magnetic island because of the absence of the gradient. That the turbulence propagates has now been demonstrated for the first time by investigating turbulence in the magnetic island.

Physicists solve the mystery of vanishing particles in graphene

EurekAlert! - Lun, 06/18/2018 - 22:00
A team of scientists explained the paradoxical phenomenon of the mutual annihilation of particles and antiparticles in graphene. The theoretical justification for this process was until recently one of the most complex riddles of solid-state physics. This discovery makes the idea of creating graphene lasers relevant.

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