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Researchers investigate why older people read more slowly

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
One of the most obvious changes that comes with ageing is that people start doing things more slowly. Numerous studies have shown that ageing also affects language processing. Even neurologically healthy people speak, retrieve words and read more slowly as they get older. But is this slowdown inevitable? Researchers from the Higher School of Economics have been working to answer this question in their article 'No evidence for strategic nature of age-related slowing in sentence processing'.

Agricultural waste drives us closer to greener transport

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Composite materials made from agricultural waste could be used to produce sustainable, lightweight and low-cost applications in the automotive and marine industries.

Fighting smog supports solar power

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Model calculations by ETH researchers show that if China fought smog more aggressively, it could massively increase solar power production.

Glutamate receptor affects the development of brain cells after birth

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
It had been previously assumed that this protein is only relevant in adults. But this is not the case.

New approach helps mitigating the effect of climate change on sea turtles

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
New research has reported effective conservation strategies that can mitigate the impacts of climate warming on sea turtle nesting success.

Why Tehran is sinking dangerously

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Researchers from the Remote Sensing Section of the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam used data from radar satellites to measure the subsidence of the Earth's surface in the Tehran region in Iran. They found out that between 2003 and 2017 three areas sank there with rates of sometimes more than 25 centimetres per year, and several meters in total. For the first time, this study traces in detail the subsidence in this region over a longer period of time.

'Hangxiety' higher in shy people

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Very shy people are more likely to suffer 'hangxiety' -- anxiety during a hangover -- than their extrovert friends, new research shows.

Interactive size control of catalyst nanoparticles

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
5, 10, or maybe 15? How many nanometers should nanoparticles of a catalyst be to optimize the course of the reaction? Researchers usually look for the answer by laborious, repetitive tests. At the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw, a qualitatively new technique was developed to improve the process of such optimization in microfluidic systems. The size of the catalyst nanoparticles can now be changed interactively, during a continuous flow through the catalyst bed.

Industrial fisheries are starving seabirds all around the world

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Industrial fisheries are starving seabirds like penguins and terns by competing for the same prey sources. Seabirds are now the most threatened bird group.

A new molecular player involved in T cell activation

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology have imaged live T cells to reveal the role of CLIP-170 in T-cell activation, a critical process in the immune response.

New molecular tool identifies sugar-protein attachments

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine have developed a new molecular tool they call EXoO, which decodes where on proteins specific sugars are attached -- a possible modification due to disease. The study, published in issue 14 of Molecular Systems Biology, describes the development of the tool and its successful use on human blood, tumors and immune cells.

Hybrid prevalence estimation: Method to improve intervention coverage estimations

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
LSTM's Professor Joseph Valadez is senior author on a new study published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, which outlines proposals for a more accurate estimator of health data.

Obesity intervention needed before pregnancy

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
New research from the University of Adelaide's Robinson Research Institute supports the need for dietary and lifestyle interventions before overweight and obese women become pregnant.

Mom, I can't recognize your face from profile view!

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Babies recognize faces from profile view in the second half of the first year of life.

Scientists discover possible mantle mineral

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Whhat mineral hosts Fe3+ had remained a secret. Now scientists have a possible answer: Maohokite, a newly discovered high-pressure mineral. It may be what composes the Earth's lower mantle along with Bridgmanite MgSiO3 and magnesiowüstite MgO.

Simple steps to climate-proof farms have big potential upside for tropical farmers

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Climate-smart agriculture boosts yields, mitigates extreme weather impact and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. A study by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture in Central America, Africa and Asia points to profitable opportunities for farmers and the environment.

Protecting cell powerhouse paves way to better treatment of acute kidney injury

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
For the first time, scientists have described the body's natural mechanism for temporarily protecting the powerhouses of kidney cells when injury or disease means they aren't getting enough blood or oxygen.

Predicting the transmission of rare, genetically based diseases

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
A McGill-led research team traced the gene mutations underlying a rare genetic disease back to two European founding families who arrived in the province in the 17th century. To track these rare mutations, the researchers developed a sophisticated computational process, which took two weeks to run. They and others will now be able to trace a range of genetically based rare diseases. In future, these techniques can be extended to trace more common genetically based diseases.

A 3D imaging technique unlocks properties of perovskite crystals

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
A team of materials scientists from Penn State, Cornell and Argonne National Laboratory have, for the first time, visualized the 3D atomic and electron density structure of the most complex perovskite crystal structure system decoded to date.

Food system organizations must strengthen their operations to safeguard against potential threats

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Food systems face growing threats as extreme weather events become more common and more extreme due to climate change. A new study from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, highlights characteristics of organizations involved in the food system that may lead them to be more prepared to respond to such disasters, and opportunities for local, state, and federal organizations to improve resilience across the urban food system.

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