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Study explains how geckos gracefully gallop on water

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Geckos are amazingly agile. In addition to running across land and up trees, the animals can prance across the surface of water. A new study reveals how they do it.

Subtype of immune B cells can delay type 1 diabetes onset in mice

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
A team of researchers at Baylor College of Medicine and the University of Michigan Medical School reports that a subset of immune B cells, known as CD19+IgM+ B cells, can delay the onset of type 1 diabetes in a mouse model of the condition.

Link between newborns with vitamin D deficiency and schizophrenia confirmed

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Newborns with Vitamin D deficiency have an increased risk of schizophrenia later in life, researchers from Aarhus University and the University of Queensland report. The discovery could prevent some cases of the disease, and shows that neonatal vitamin D deficiency could possibly account for about 8 percent of all schizophrenia cases in Denmark.

Three quarters of a Quebec population fall short of healthy eating guidelines

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
In a web-based study reported in the Canadian Journal of Cardiology, more than three quarters of French-speaking adults in Quebec, Canada, fall short of meeting current dietary guidelines regarding consumption of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, sodium, and saturated fats. The authors recommend stronger, more impactful actions to support everyone in adopting healthier dietary habits to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.

Scientists enter unexplored territory in superconductivity search

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Scientists mapping out the quantum characteristics of superconductors -- materials that conduct electricity with no energy loss -- have entered a new regime. Using newly connected tools named OASIS at Brookhaven Lab, they've uncovered previously inaccessible details of the 'phase diagram' of one of the most commonly studied 'high-temperature' superconductors.

New ways to look at protein-RNA networks

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
For their vital tasks, all RNA molecules in our cells require proteins as binding partners. Scientists at the German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ) and colleagues from the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) have developed the first method with which they can analyze the composition of the entire RNA-protein network of the cell. The new method has now been published in the scientific journal Cell.

Putting the brakes on tumor stealth

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
New research undertaken at Monash University has shed new light on how some cancers are able to escape our immune system. The findings have significant implications for the burgeoning field of cancer immunotherapy, an approach that is focused on harnessing the remarkable power of our own immune system to seek out and destroy cancer.

Accelerated PBI close but not equivalent to WBI to control ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Data from the NRG (NSABP B-39/RTOG 0413) trial indicated that ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) rates 10 years after treatment could not reject the hypothesis that accelerated partial breast irradiation (PBI) after lumpectomy was inferior to whole breast irradiation (WBI), according to a presentation at the 2018 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

Scientists cut main heart disease risk locus out of DNA by genome editing

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Scientists have made a major breakthrough in unveiling the major genetic risk factor for heart disease by precisely cutting the DNA culprit from the genome, which prevents blood vessel cell abnormalities related to these devastating diseases.

Link between neonatal vitamin D deficiency and schizophrenia confirmed

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Newborns with vitamin D deficiency have an increased risk of schizophrenia later in life, a team of Australian and Danish researchers has reported.The discovery could help prevent some cases of the disease by treating vitamin D deficiency during the earliest stages of life. The study found newborns with vitamin D deficiency had a 44 percent increased risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia as adults compared to those with normal vitamin D levels.

Stanford researchers use zinc to target insulin-producing cells with regenerative drug

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
A team of Stanford University endocrinologists and chemists has taken a step toward targeting the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin more precisely, using a property that researchers have long known about but never exploited for treatment: Beta cells, the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, have a particularly strong taste for zinc.

Acrobatic geckos, highly maneuverable on land and in the air, can also race on water

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Asian geckos were observed running over water at nearly a meter per second, as fast as on land. Lab experiments at UC Berkeley show how. They get support from surface tension but also slap the water rapidly with their feet. They also semi-plane over the surface and use their tail for stabilization and propulsion. They thus sit between insects, which use only surface tension, and larger animals, which run upright via foot slapping alone.

Missing the forest for the trees: An unexpected picture of New York City forests

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
An inventory of New York City's expansive yet overlooked 'forested natural areas' reveals that, contrary to previous reports, native species still comprise about 82 percent of the city's forest stands. In the forests' mid- and understory, however, the proportion of native species fell significantly, suggesting that their dominance could decline in coming decades.

Providing supervised medical-grade heroin to heavy users can reduce harms

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Some nations -- but not the US -- provide heroin-assisted treatment and supervised consumption sites as approaches to reduce the harms caused by addiction to opioids. A new study finds that the experiences in other parts of the work find that providing supervised access to medical-grade heroin to people whose use continues after trying multiple traditional treatments has been successful in other countries, and should be piloted and studied in the US.

Cardiac rehabilitation linked to improved sexual functioning and frequency

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
A new systematic review of the literature comparing the sexual health of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) who attended cardiac rehabilitation (CR) with patients who did not, found that rehab attendance is associated with improved sexual function and sexual frequency. Published in the Canadian Journal of Cardiology, the study validates the benefit of exercise training and points to the need for more high quality research to better understand the role of counseling and other therapies in easing the sexual repercussions of a cardiac event.

Silicosis is on the rise, but is there a therapeutic target?

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Researchers from the CNRS, the University of Orléans, and the company Artimmune, in collaboration with Turkish clinicians from Atatürk University, have identified a key mechanism of lung inflammation induced by silica exposure, which leads to silicosis, an incurable disease. Their study in mice and patients, published in Nature Communications, shows that this inflammation can be prevented by extracellular DNA degradation, suggesting a new therapeutic target.

Performance on exercise test predicts risk of death from cardiovascular disease and cancer

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Performance on an exercise test predicts the risk of death from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other causes, reports a study presented today at EuroEcho-Imaging 2018. Good performance on the test equates to climbing three floors of stairs very fast, or four floors fast, without stopping. The findings underline the importance of fitness for longevity.

Acute heart failure patients with 'metabolically healthy obesity' have better survival

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Acute heart failure patients with 'metabolically healthy obesity' have better survival than those with 'metabolically unhealthy obesity' or with normal weight regardless of metabolic status, according to a study presented today at EuroEcho-Imaging 2018. Obese patients had less deterioration in heart structure and function.

Axillary RT and lymph node surgery yielded comparable outcomes for patients with breast cancer

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Patients with early-stage breast cancer who had cancer detected in a sentinel lymph node biopsy had comparable 10-year recurrence and survival rates following either axillary radiotherapy or axillary lymph node dissection, according to data from the randomized, phase III AMAROS clinical trial presented at the 2018 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

Liquid biopsies in SOLAR-1 trial predict benefit of Alpelisib in PIK3CA-mutant breast cancer

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Liquid biopsy-based assessment of PIK3CA mutational status served as a better indicator of progression-free survival compared with analysis of tissue biopsy in breast cancer patients enrolled in the phase III clinical trial SOLAR-1, according to data presented at the 2018 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

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