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Origami inspires highly efficient solar steam generator

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Water covers most of the globe, yet many regions still suffer from a lack of clean drinking water. If scientists could efficiently and sustainably turn seawater into clean water, a looming global water crisis might be averted. Now, inspired by origami, the Japanese art of paper folding, researchers have devised a solar steam generator that approaches 100 percent efficiency for the production of clean water. They report their results in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces.

'Hoppy' beer without exploding bottles and too much alcohol

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
The forgotten art of 'dry-hopping' beer to enhance flavor is back in vogue. But this practice sometimes has undesirable side effects, such as an unexpectedly high alcohol content and high pressures that could cause beer bottles to break. Now, research published in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry explains the biochemical basis of these unintended consequences, which could help brewers create 'hoppy' beverages without the quality-control and safety issues. 

CTLA4 targeted therapy plus PD-1 targeted therapy could benefit women with ovarian cancer

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
An analysis of the NRG Oncology clinical trial NRG-GY003 suggests that adding ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets the protein receptor CTLA-4, to a regimen with the checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab could improve the proportion with tumor response and progression-free survival hazard rates for women with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. These results were presented as a late-breaking abstract oral presentation at the 17th Biennial Meeting of the International Gynecological Cancer Society (IGCS) in Kyoto, Japan.

Oldest-known aquatic reptiles probably spent time on land

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
A comprehensive analysis of Mesosaurus fossils shows that bones from adults share similarities with land-dwelling animals -- suggesting older Mesosaurus were semi-aquatic, whereas the juveniles spent their time in the water. This new research emphasizes the importance of thoroughly analyzing fossilized remains from across all stages of a reptile's life to get a full appreciation of its lifestyle and behavior.

Study: Difficult people have most to gain from practicing compassion

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
The most disagreeable individuals, who are also the least likely to be kind, can benefit most from behaving more compassionately, a York University study has found. Disagreeable participants who performed acts of kindness in close relationships showed the greatest reductions in depression and greatest increases in life satisfaction.

Aging Europe

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Demographers from the Higher School of Economics and the University of Southern Denmark have created a detailed color map of population ageing in European countries; a collection of demographic stories, it uses color coding to indicate the varying stages of population aging across Europe.

Syracuse study reveals cannabinoid drugs make pain feel 'less unpleasant, more tolerable'

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Researchers have determined that cannabinoid drugs do not appear to reduce the intensity of experimental pain, but, instead, may make pain feel less unpleasant and more tolerable. The paper, whose publication coincides with 'Pain Awareness Month,' represents the first systematic review of experimental research into the effects of cannabis on pain.

Heartbeat paces learning

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
The processing of external information varies during the phases of the cardiac cycle, shows a new study from the University of Jyväskylä.

What your cell phone camera tells you about your brain

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Your brain is structured to make the best possible decision given its limited resources, according to new research that unites cognitive science and information theory -- the branch of mathematics that underlies modern communications technology.

Cell mechanism regulating protein synthesis in stress conditions discovered

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Researchers from the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, and the Medical Research Council Cambridge (UK), for the first time describe the mechanism used by cells to optimise the production of proteins in stressful situations by altering tRNA abundance.

Getting help with parenting makes a difference -- at any age

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
New Oxford University study finds that parenting interventions for helping children with behaviour problems are just as effective in school age, as in younger children.

Lighting it up: A new non-toxic, cheap, and stable blue photoluminescent material

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology have designed a novel photoluminescent material that is cheap to fabricate, does not use toxic starting materials, and is very stable, enhancing our understanding of the quantic nature of photoluminescence.

A new carbon material with Na storage capacity over 400mAh/g

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Developing the high-capacity carbon anode materials can further improve the energy density of sodium-ion batteries (NIBs). Recently, researchers from the Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOP-CAS) reported a high-capacity carbon anode (~400 mAh g-1) for NIBs in Science Bulletin.

Where you live might influence how you measure up against your peers

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Social psychologists uncover important mechanisms of social comparison, showing that it depends on specific, universal social settings and situations.

Commercially relevant bismuth-based thin film processing

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Osaka University researchers prepared 2D layered, visible-light-absorbing bismuth sulfide semiconductors using a two-step process. The resulting film exhibited morphology that supported excellent semiconductor performance. The simplicity and versatility of the processing method, which uses non-toxic, abundant materials, makes bismuth sulfide a viable alternative to commercially available photoresponsive devices.

New method enables accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Diagnosing Alzheimer's disease can be difficult, as several other conditions can cause similar symptoms. Now a new brain imaging method can show the spread of specific tau protein depositions, which are unique to cases with Alzheimer's. "The method works very well. I believe it will be applied clinically all over the world in only a few years", says Oskar Hansson.

New micro-platform reveals cancer cells' natural behavior

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
A new cell culture platform allows researchers to observe never-before-seen behaviors of live cancer cells under the microscope, leading to explanations of long-known cancer characteristics.

Fly mating choices may help explain variation across species

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Scientists at the University of Stirling have shed new light on the impact of sexual selection on species diversity after studying the mating rituals of dance flies.

Interfacial engineering core@shell nanoparticles for active and selective direct H2O2 generation

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
A class of supported Pd@NiO-x core@shell catalysts have been constructed as highly efficient catalysts toward direct H2O2 generation. The optimized Pd@NiO-3/TiO2 exhibited high activity, superior selectivity, low degradation activity and excellent stability. The cavity-contained unique interface structure can suppresses the overbinding between Pd-core and (O-O)*, which is effective to prevent H2O formation and guarantees high selectivity of H2O2. The present work highlights the importance of interface engineering of Pd-based catalysts for direct H2O2 synthesis.

Premature brains develop differently in boys and girls

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Brains of baby boys born prematurely are affected differently and more severely than premature infant girls' brains. This is according to a study published in the Springer Nature-branded journal Pediatric Research. Lead authors Amanda Benavides and Peg Nopoulos of the University of Iowa in the US used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans as part of an ongoing study on premature babies to examine how the brains of baby boys and girls changed and developed.

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