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Immunotherapy strategy could be beneficial for relapsed acute myeloid leukemia

EurekAlert! - Dom, 12/10/2017 - 23:00
UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers will present preliminary results from an ongoing phase II trial of chemotherapy and pembrolizumab in relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia at the 59th American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting in Atlanta on Saturday, Dec. 9.

'Black box' recorder puts surgeons' robotic surgery skills under the microscope

EurekAlert! - Dom, 12/10/2017 - 23:00
A new study from Keck Medicine of USC finds that data from a novel recorder can be used to objectively measure surgeons' proficiency in robotic-assisted prostate cancer surgery.

Research shows why meteroids explode before they reach Earth

EurekAlert! - Dom, 12/10/2017 - 23:00
When a meteor comes hurtling toward Earth, the high-pressure air in front of it seeps into its pores and cracks, pushing the body of the meteor apart and causing it to explode.

As building floor space increases, time running out to cut energy use and meet climate goals: UN

EurekAlert! - Dom, 12/10/2017 - 23:00
The UN-backed Global Alliance for Buildings and Construction predicts that the floor area of buildings worldwide (235 billion m2 in 2016) will roughly double by 2060, some 230 billion m2 of additional buildings -- the equivalent of all the buildings in Japan added every year; a Paris every week. While energy intensity of the buildings sector has improved, it isn't enough to offset rising energy demand. Ambitious action is needed to avoid locking in long-lived, inefficient buildings assets for decades.

Use of chemotherapy for early stage breast cancer declines, Stanford-led study says

EurekAlert! - Dom, 12/10/2017 - 23:00
A study of nearly 3,000 women with early stage breast cancer indicates a recent, significant decline in the use of chemotherapy despite the lack of any change in national treatment recommendations or guidelines, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and the University of Michigan.

Kidney disease increases risk of diabetes, study shows

EurekAlert! - Dom, 12/10/2017 - 23:00
Diabetes is known to increase a person's risk of kidney disease. Now, a new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis suggests that the converse also is true: Kidney dysfunction increases the risk of diabetes. Further, the researchers deduced that a likely culprit of the two-way relationship between kidney disease and diabetes is urea. The findings are significant because urea levels can be lowered through medication and diet.

Researchers identify epigenetic orchestrator of pancreatic cancer cells

EurekAlert! - Dom, 12/10/2017 - 23:00
Genentech researchers have identified an enzyme that shifts pancreatic cancer cells to a more aggressive, drug-resistant state by epigenetically modifying the cells' chromatin. The study, which will be published Dec. 11 in the Journal of Cell Biology, suggests that targeting this enzyme could make pancreatic cancer cells more vulnerable to existing therapies that currently have only limited effect against this deadly form of cancer.

Reductions in individual plant growth sometimes boost community resilience

EurekAlert! - Dom, 12/10/2017 - 23:00
In sports, sometimes a player has to take one for the team. The same appears to be true in the plant world, where reduced individual growth can benefit the broader community.

Novel framework to infer microbial interactions

EurekAlert! - Dom, 12/10/2017 - 23:00
Inferring the underlying ecological networks of microbial communities is important to understanding their structure and responses to external stimuli. But it can be very challenging to make accurate network inferences. In a paper published in Nature Communications, researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital detail a method to make the network inference easier by utilizing steady-state data without altering microbial communities.

Radar tracking reveals how bees develop a route between flowers

EurekAlert! - Dom, 12/10/2017 - 23:00
As bees gain foraging experience they continually refine both the order in which they visit flowers and the flight paths they take between flowers to generate better and better routes, according to researchers at Queen Mary University of London.

Internal forces directing cell migration are revealed by live-cell microscopy

EurekAlert! - Dom, 12/10/2017 - 23:00
Two new studies from the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) show how cells respond to internal forces when they orient, gain traction, and migrate in a specific direction. The research is published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) and this week in Nature Communications.

Ben-Gurion U. researcher indicates nicotine replacement is safer for pregnant women than smoking

EurekAlert! - Dom, 12/10/2017 - 23:00
Smoking during pregnancy is the most significant, preventable risk factor for poor maternal and infant health outcomes. However, clinicians worldwide, including in the United States, report that they prescribe NRT at low levels due to lack of confidence and safety concerns. However, behavioral counseling combined with medication is the most effective smoking cessation strategy.

New research identifies how 3-D printed metals can be both strong and ductile

EurekAlert! - Dom, 12/10/2017 - 23:00
A new technique by which to 3-D print metals, involving a widely used stainless steel, has been show to achieve exception levels of both strength and ductility, when compared to counterparts from more conventional processes.

Soy, cruciferous vegetables associated with fewer common breast cancer treatment side effects

EurekAlert! - Dom, 12/10/2017 - 23:00
Consuming soy foods (such as soy milk, tofu and edamame) and cruciferous vegetables (such as cabbages, kale, collard greens, bok choy, Brussels sprouts, and broccoli) may be associated with a reduction in common side effects of breast cancer treatment in breast cancer survivors, say a team of scientists.

E-cig use increases risk of beginning tobacco cigarette use in young adults

EurekAlert! - Dom, 12/10/2017 - 23:00
Young adults who use electronic cigarettes are more than four times as likely to begin smoking tobacco cigarettes within 18 months as their peers who do not vape, according to new University of Pittsburgh research. The findings demonstrate that e-cigarettes are serving as a gateway to traditional smoking, contrary to their purported value as a smoking cessation tool. The study is the first nationally representative survey that followed for more than a year people 18 to 30 years old who were initially nonsmokers.

Anesthetics have the same effects on plants as they have on animals and humans

EurekAlert! - Dom, 12/10/2017 - 23:00
A new study published in Annals of Botany has shown that plants react to anesthetics similarly to the way animals and humans do, suggesting plants are ideal objects for testing anesthetics actions in future.

Exposure to air pollution just before or after conception raises risk of birth defects

EurekAlert! - Dom, 12/10/2017 - 23:00
Women exposed to air pollution just prior to conception or during the first month of pregnancy face an increased risk of their children being born with birth defects, such as cleft lip or palate or abnormal hearts.

Rheumatoid arthritis during pregnancy may increase chronic disease risk in children

EurekAlert! - Dom, 12/10/2017 - 23:00
New research reveals that children born to women with rheumatoid arthritis face an increased susceptibility for certain chronic diseases.

Payment incentives to psychiatrists in Ontario do not increase access for new patients

EurekAlert! - Dom, 12/10/2017 - 23:00
Incentive payments, introduced to encourage community-based psychiatrists to see new patients after discharge from a psychiatric hospital or following suicide attempts, do not increase access, found new research published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

Physicians, especially female and rural doctors, retiring earlier than expected

EurekAlert! - Dom, 12/10/2017 - 23:00
Physicians in British Columbia are retiring earlier than previously thought and many are reducing their working hours in the years leading up to retirement, found new research published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal). These findings indicate that estimates based on physician 'head counts' from data on physician licences may be overestimating the number of active physicians.

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