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Far from special: Humanity's tiny DNA differences are 'average' in animal kingdom

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/20/2018 - 22:00
Researchers report important new insights into evolution following a study of mitochondrial DNA from about five million specimens covering about 100,000 animal species.Mining 'big data' insights from the world's fast-growing genetic databases and reviewing a large literature in evolutionary theory, researchers at The Rockefeller University in New York City and the Biozentrum at the University of Basel in Switzerland, published several conclusions today in the journal Human Evolution.

New technique reveals 3-D shape of nanostructure's polariton interaction

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/20/2018 - 22:00
Researchers from Lehigh University have found a way to reveal the 3-D shape of the polariton interaction around a nanostructure. Their technique improves upon the common spectroscopic imaging technique known as scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). The research will be online published today in Nature Communications.

Preventing murder by addressing domestic violence

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/20/2018 - 22:00
Victims of domestic violence are at a high risk to be murdered -- or a victim of attempted murder -- according to a Cuyahoga County task force of criminal-justice professionals, victim advocates and researchers working to prevent domestic violence and homicides.

Bladder cancer model could pave the way for better drug efficacy studies

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/20/2018 - 22:00
In the journal Cancer Research, UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers report they have developed a model of luminal bladder cancer, one of the two subtypes of advanced bladder cancer. The researchers said this model may help them to determine which patients may respond to checkpoint inhibitors.

First interstellar immigrant discovered in the solar system

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/20/2018 - 22:00
A new study has discovered the first known permanent immigrant to our solar system. The asteroid, currently nestling in Jupiter's orbit, is the first known asteroid to have been captured from another star system. The work is published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters.

Scientists have deciphered the chemical reaction mechanism critical for cleaner combustion

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/20/2018 - 22:00
Scientists have deciphered the mechanism of a chemical reaction critical for the development of environmentally friendly combustion technologies

Synchrotron radiations shed light on formation mechanism of aromatic polyimide precursor

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/20/2018 - 22:00
A mechanism for an industrially used catalysis of an aromatic polyimide precursor is now revealed by use of synchrotron radiations. This finding is of service to the more economical production of an aromatic polyimide by further development of catalysts.

US poison control centers receive 29 calls per day about children exposed to ADHD medications

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/20/2018 - 22:00
The study found that there were more than 156,000 calls to US Poison Control Centers regarding exposures to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications among children and adolescents 19 years of age and younger from January 2000 through December 2014, averaging 200 calls each week or 29 calls per day.

Fewer men are being screened, diagnosed, and treated for prostate cancer

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/20/2018 - 22:00
A new study reveals declines in prostate cancer screening and diagnoses in the United States in recent years, as well as decreases in the use of definitive treatments in men who have been diagnosed.

One in 10 parents say their child has gotten sick from spoiled or contaminated food

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/20/2018 - 22:00
Few parents are using some simple strategies to protect kids from food poisoning outside the home, such as at a potluck or restaurant, according to a new report from C.S. Mott Children's Hospital National Poll on Children's Health at the University of Michigan.

Neuron guidance factor found to play a key role in immune cell function

EurekAlert! - Sáb, 05/19/2018 - 22:00
Macrophages are white blood cells that perform different functions with different energy needs. M2-type macrophages have anti-inflammatory properties that may protect against inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the molecular pathways driving M2 formation are not fully understood. Researchers identified a protein commonly involved in nervous system development that plays a key role in metabolism of M2 macrophages and protecting against colitis symptoms in mice. The findings may lead to new therapeutic targets for inflammatory diseases.

Japanese student discovers new crustacean species in deep sea hydrothermal vent

EurekAlert! - Sáb, 05/19/2018 - 22:00
A new species of microcrustacean was collected from a submarine hot spring (hydrothermal vent) of a marine volcano (Myojin-sho caldera) in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Japan. This crustacean group is found only in deep-sea hydrothermal vents and is the first of its kind found in Japanese waters.

Improving heart health could prevent frailty in old age

EurekAlert! - Sáb, 05/19/2018 - 22:00
The largest study of its kind, led by the University of Exeter, found that even small reductions in risk factors helped to reduce frailty, as well as dementia, chronic pain, and other disabling conditions of old age.

Exercise to stay young: 4-5 days a week to slow down your heart's aging

EurekAlert! - Sáb, 05/19/2018 - 22:00
Participating in exercise 4-5 days per week is necessary to keep your heart young, according to new research published in The Journal of Physiology. These findings could be an important step to develop exercise strategies to slow down such aging.

Infection blood test of limited value in reducing antibiotic use

EurekAlert! - Sáb, 05/19/2018 - 22:00
Overall antibiotic use was not curbed by giving physicians the results of biomarker tests in patients with suspected lower respiratory tract infections, according to findings from the Procalcitonin Antibiotic Consensus Trial.

Nanoparticles derived from tea leaves destroy lung cancer cells: Quantum dots have great potential

EurekAlert! - Sáb, 05/19/2018 - 22:00
Nanoparticles derived from tea leaves inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells, destroying up to 80 percent of them, new research by a joint Swansea University and Indian team has shown. The team made the discovery while they were testing out a new method of producing a type of nanoparticle called quantum dots. These are tiny particles which measure less than 10 nanometers. A human hair is 40,000 nanometers thick.

Brain stimulation may reduce food cravings as obesity treatment

EurekAlert! - Sáb, 05/19/2018 - 22:00
Stimulating the brain to alter its intrinsic reward system shows promise in the treatment of obesity, according to results presented in Barcelona at the European Society of Endocrinology annual meeting, ECE 2018. The technique has yielded positive results after just a single treatment session, revealing its potential to become a safer alternative to treat obesity, avoiding invasive surgery and drug side effects.

Larger waistlines are linked to higher risk of vitamin D deficiency

EurekAlert! - Sáb, 05/19/2018 - 22:00
Higher levels of belly fat are associated with lower vitamin D levels in obese individuals, according to data presented in Barcelona at the European Society of Endocrinology annual meeting, ECE 2018. The study reports that vitamin D levels are lower in individuals with higher levels of belly fat, and suggests that individuals, particularly the overweight with larger waistlines should have their vitamin D levels checked, to avoid any potentially health damaging effects.

Research sheds light on a novel disease mechanism in chronic smokers

EurekAlert! - Sáb, 05/19/2018 - 22:00
Research published in the journal Clinical Science suggests that an immune signalling protein called interleukin (IL)-26 is increased among chronic smokers with lung disease and this involvement reveals disease mechanisms of interest for developing more effective therapy for these hard-to-treat patients.

Multidisciplinary lung health clinic helps low-income patients

EurekAlert! - Sáb, 05/19/2018 - 22:00
A new study demonstrates that a comprehensive and multidisciplinary clinic for low-income and homeless individuals with respiratory disease can decrease no-show rates and provide quality care that is highly satisfying to the individuals treated. The study was presented at the 2018 American Thoracic Society International Conference.

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