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Low-dose tamoxifen reduced recurrence and new disease for patients with DCIS, LCIS, and ADH

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Treatment with a low dose of tamoxifen (5 mg per day) halved the risk of disease recurrence and new disease for women who had been treated with surgery following a diagnosis of breast intraepithelial neoplasia compared with placebo, and it did not cause more serious adverse events, according to data from the randomized, phase III TAM-01 clinical trial presented at the 2018 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

Circulating tumor cell count could help choose treatment for metastatic breast cancer patients

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Circulating tumor-cell (CTC) count could be used to choose hormone therapy or chemotherapy as frontline treatment for patients with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), HER2-negative (HER2-) metastatic breast cancer, according to data from the phase III STIC CTC clinical trial presented at the 2018 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. In the case of discrepancy between CTC count-based treatment choice and physician's choice of treatment, frontline chemotherapy was associated with a significant gain in overall survival.

'Chemo brain' caused by malfunction in three types of brain cells, Stanford study finds

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
In a new study explaining the cellular mechanisms behind cognitive impairment from chemotherapy, scientists at the Stanford University School of Medicine have demonstrated that a widely used chemotherapy drug, methotrexate, causes a complex set of problems in three major cell types within the brain's white matter. The study, which will be published online Dec. 6 in Cell, also identifies a potential remedy.

An ancient strain of plague may have led to the decline of Neolithic Europeans

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
A team of researchers from France, Sweden, and Denmark have identified a new strain of Yersinia pestis, the bacteria that causes plague, in DNA extracted from 5,000-year-old human remains. Their analyses, publishing Dec. 6 in the journal Cell, suggest that this strain is the closest ever identified to the genetic origin of plague. Their work also suggests that plague may have been spread among Neolithic European settlements by traders, contributing to their decline.

Watch how geckos run across water

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
Geckos run across water at up to almost a meter a second using a unique mix of surface tension and slapping, say researchers reporting Dec. 6 in the journal Current Biology. They found that the mouse-sized lizards are too big to float on water using only surface tension, like insects, but too small to use only foot slapping, like basilisks.

Wild African fruit flies offer clues to their modern-day domestic life

EurekAlert! - Mié, 12/05/2018 - 23:00
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is quite possibly the most studied organism on the planet. Fruit flies are also quite familiar residents in many of our kitchens, attracted as they are to the fruit bowl. But how do the flies live in the wild? Surprisingly little is known.

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