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Light provides spin

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Physicists at FAU have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. They have thus found the key to an important characteristic of these crystals, which could play an important role in the development of new solar cells.

Plant growth-promoting bacteria enhance plant salinity tolerance

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Soil salinity is a serious problem in crop production, but the work of scientists helps to relieve it.

Co-evolution between a 'parasite gene' and its host

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
A Danish research team has delineated a complex symbiosis between a 'parasitic' noncoding RNA gene and its protein coding 'host' gene in human cells. The study reveals how co-evolution of the host gene and parasite gene has shaped a feedback mechanism in which the parasite gene plays a completely new and surprising part as regulator of the host gene protein production. The breakthrough finding opens an entirely new avenue of research in gene expression.

Snooker in the live cell

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
The spatial and temporal dynamics of proteins or organelles plays a crucial role in controlling various cellular processes and in development of diseases. Yet, acute control of activity at distinct locations within a cell cannot be achieved. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, scientists from Umeå University (Sweden) and the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology (Germany) present a new chemo-optogenetic method that enables tunable, reversible, and rapid control of activity at multiple subcellular compartments within a living cell.

Chemists produce and test novel solid oxide electrolysis cell

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Researchers from Ekaterinburg, Russia, have developed and tested a new solid oxide electrolysis cell. They observed increased performance of the cell when the reducing atmosphere was enriched with carbon dioxide.

Chitinase as 'burnt-bridge' Brownian monorail efficiently hydrolyzing recalcitrant biomass

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Serratia marcescens Chitinase A (SmChiA) is a molecular motor efficiently hydrolyzing recalcitrant crystalline chitin by moving on the surface processively. By using gold-nanoparticle probe, researchers revealed 1-nm stepping motion of SmChiA rectified forward by fast catalysis. X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics simulation also revealed that motion of SmChiA is driven by the Brownian motion. The results show SmChiA is 'burnt-bridge' Brownian ratchet monorail, and give an insight to design engineered and artificial molecular motors.

Seeing pesticides spread through insect bodies

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Osaka University-led team provides insights into the distribution of pesticides within insects using a newly developed method of insect sample preparation.

Can video game exercises help chronic low back pain?

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
New research from University of Sydney has found home-based video-game exercises can reduce chronic low back pain in older people by 27 percent, which is comparable to benefits gained under programs supervised by a physiotherapist.

Chinese-led team shows mass extinction happened in geological 'instant'

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Scientists from China, the USA and Canada combined new high-resolution radiometric dating of seven closely spaced layers of volcanic material from South China's Penglaitan section with detailed biostratigraphy and geochemical analyses. Results show the duration of the end-Permian mass extinction to be about 31,000 years, essentially instantaneous by geological standards.

New insights into the way the brain combines memories to solve problems

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Humans can creatively combine their memories to solve problems and draw new insights, a process that depends on episodic memory. But current theories do not easily explain how people can use their episodic memories to arrive at these novel insights. Results from researchers at DeepMind and Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, publishing in the journal Neuron on Sept. 19, provide a window into the way the human brain connects individual episodic memories to solve problems.

Scientists crack genetic code of cane toad

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
A group of scientists from UNSW Sydney, the University of Sydney, Deakin University, Portugal and Brazil have unlocked the DNA of the cane toad, a poisonous amphibian that is a threat to many native Australian species. The findings were published in academic journal GigaScience today.

Magnetic field milestone

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Physicists from the Institute for Solid State Physics at the University of Tokyo have generated the strongest controllable magnetic field ever produced. The field was sustained for longer than any previous field of a similar strength. This research could lead to powerful investigative tools for material scientists and may have applications in fusion power generation.

Wave-particle interactions allow collision-free energy transfer in space plasma

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
A team including researchers from Nagoya University finds evidence of collisionless energy transfer occurring in the plasma of Earth's magnetosphere.

Two quantum dots are better than one: Using one dot to sense changes in another

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Osaka University researchers developed the first device that can detect single-electron events in a self-assembled quantum dot in real time. The device detects the single-electron tunneling events of one quantum dot as changes in the current produced by a second quantum dot in close proximity. This device allows single-electron events in quantum dots to be investigated, which is beneficial for the development of photonic devices and quantum computing.

College students have unequal access to reliable technology, study finds

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Smartphones and laptops seem ubiquitous at US universities, but there is still a 'digital divide,' with some students less likely than others to have consistent access to reliable technology, according to a study co-authored by an Indiana University sociologist.

Green tea compound helps siRNA slip inside cells

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Drinking green tea has been linked to health benefits ranging from cardiovascular disease prevention to weight loss. Although many of these claims still need to be verified in the clinic, an antioxidant in green tea called epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) appears to have beneficial effects in cells and animals. Now, researchers have found a surprising use for EGCG: sneaking therapeutic RNAs into cells. They report their results in ACS Central Science.

Newly identified African bird species already in trouble

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Central Africa's Albertine Rift region is a biodiversity hotspot consisting of a system of highlands that spans six countries. Recent studies have shown that the population of sooty bush-shrikes occupying the region's mid-elevation forests is a distinct species, and new research from The Condor: Ornithological Applications reveals that this newly discovered species may already be endangered due to pressure from agricultural development.

Improving 'silvopastures' for bird conservation

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
The adoption of 'silvopastures' -- incorporating trees into pastureland -- can provide habitat for forest bird species and improve connectivity in landscapes fragmented by agriculture. But how do silvopastures measure up to natural forest habitat? New research from The Condor: Ornithological Applications shows that birds in silvopasture forage less efficiently than those in forest fragments but offers suggestions for how silvopasture habitat could be improved.

Nucleation a boon to sustainable nanomanufacturing

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Young-Shin Jun, professor of energy, environmental & chemical engineering in the School of Engineering & Applied Science, and Quingun Li, a former doctoral student in her lab, are the first to measure the activation energy and kinetic factors of calcium carbonate's nucleation.

Young children's oral bacteria may predict obesity

EurekAlert! - Mar, 09/18/2018 - 22:00
Weight gain during early childhood is related to the composition of oral bacteria of two-year-old children, suggesting this understudied aspect of a children's collection of microorganisms could serve as an early indicator for childhood obesity.

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