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Fire's effects on soil moisture, runoff

EurekAlert! - Mar, 12/11/2018 - 23:00
The 2011 Las Conchas mega-fire in New Mexico burned more than 150,000 acres and threatened the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Now, using data from the fire, researchers at Los Alamos have created an experimental model that will help us better understand the interactions of fire and water in the soil.

Improved understanding of the pathology of dwarfism may lead to new treatment targets

EurekAlert! - Mar, 12/11/2018 - 23:00
Pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) is a severe inherited dwarfing condition In PSACH, a genetic mutation leads to abnormal retention of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of cartilage-producing cells (chondrocytes), which interferes with function and cell viability. In a report in The American Journal of Pathology, investigators describe how this protein accumulation results in 'ER stress' and initiates a host of pathologic changes. These findings may open up new ways to treat PSACH and other ER-stress-related conditions.

Faster, cheaper test can help predict risk of metastasis in prostate cancer patients

EurekAlert! - Mar, 12/11/2018 - 23:00
A report in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics describes a new assay to assess copy number alterations that is cheaper, faster, reproducible, and requires less tissue than other diagnostic techniques and has the potential to significantly enhance prostate cancer evaluation.

Whole-body PET/MRI provides one-stop shop for staging high-risk prostate cancer patients

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
New research shows that molecular imaging--specifically, PSMA PET/MR--performs as well as currently used tools and provides additional information on tumor location that could help guide treatment for prostate cancer patients. The research is featured in the December 2018 issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine (http://jnm.snmjournals.org).

Inaccurate prescribing warnings in electronic medical record systems

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
Electronic prescribing is becoming widespread. All states allow it, some states require it, and many institutions now mandate electronic prescribing. Many electronic prescribing systems use computerized decision support algorithms that give automated warnings or alerts at the time of prescribing if a potential prescribing error is identified -- for example, regarding dosing or contraindications.

FSU researchers find racial inequity among adolescents receiving flu vaccine

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
Black adolescents living in the United States tend to receive the influenza vaccine at significantly lower rates than their white and Hispanic counterparts, according to Florida State University researchers.

New models sense human trust in smart machines

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
New 'classification models' sense how well humans trust intelligent machines they collaborate with, a step toward improving the quality of interactions and teamwork.

Pregnant women, young children most likely to use bed nets to prevent malaria

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
When households in sub-Saharan Africa don't have an adequate number of insecticide-treated bed nets, pregnant women and children under five are the most likely family members to sleep under the ones they have, leaving men and school-aged children more exposed to malaria, new Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs (CCP) research suggests.

New review of scientific studies confirms food cravings can be reduced

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
Food craving, the intense desire to eat certain foods, can sabotage efforts to maintain healthy eating habits and body weight, no matter the time of year. However, an examination of 28 current peer-reviewed scientific studies largely substantiates findings that changes in diet, prescription medications, physical activity and bariatric surgery reduce craving, said Candice Myers, PhD, assistant professor - research at LSU's Pennington Biomedical Research Center.

Trying to get people to agree? Skip the French restaurant and go out for Chinese food

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
When people in a business negotiation share not just a meal but a plate, they collaborate better and reach deals faster, according to new research from the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.

USC study examines disruption of circadian rhythm as risk factor for diseases

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
USC scientists report a time-keeping mechanism in liver cells that helps sustain key organ tasks can contribute to diseases when its natural rhythm is disrupted.

Taming turbulence: Seeking to make complex simulations a breeze

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
Previously intractable problems for designing fusion experiments, improving weather models, and understanding astrophysical phenomena such as star formation will be more easily addressed without the need for expensive supercomputers using a new model identified at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Are you stressed? Your eyes may provide a window into your mental workload

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
With nearly breakneck speed, the demands of work productivity in today's society seem to have increased tenfold. Enter multitasking as a way to cope with the insistence that tasks be completed almost immediately. Previous studies on workload and productivity include physical aspects, such as how much a person walks or carries, but they do not take into account a person's state of mind. Now, MU researchers have discovered a person's eyes may offer a solution.

Hypoxic dead zones found in urban streams, not just at the coast

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
A Duke-led study finds that hypoxic dead zones occur in nutrient-laden urban streams, not just in coastal waters. The research shows that intense storm flows can erode some stream channels to become a series of pools that trap nutrient-laden runoff. The elevated nutrient levels in the water spur greater consumption of dissolved oxygen by bacteria, causing the pools to become hypoxic until the next storm flushes them out.

What social stress in monkeys can tell us about human health

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
A new University of Washington-led study examines one key stress-inducing circumstance -- the effects of social hierarchy -- and how cells respond to the hormones that are released in response to that stress.

Hazelnuts 365: Why Oregon's state nut may be the key to disease prevention

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
The new study, administered by the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University and published in the December 2018 issue of The Journal of Nutrition, found that older adults who added hazelnuts to their diet for 16 weeks significantly improved their levels of two key micronutrients. Results showed increased blood concentrations of magnesium and elevated urinary levels of a breakdown product of alpha tocopherol, commonly known as vitamin E.

Study: Innovative model helps kids on autism spectrum avoid behavioral drugs in ER

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
An innovative care model developed by Nemours Children's Hospital for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the emergency department (ED) reduces the use of medication administered to kids who are prone to stress and sensory overload in this care setting. Information about this care model was presented today at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's National Forum.

Historic earthquakes test Indonesia's seismic hazard assessment

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
Using data gleaned from historical reports, researchers have now identified the sources of some of the most destructive Indonesian earthquakes in Java, Bali and Nusa Tenggara, using these data to independently test how well Indonesia's 2010 and 2017 seismic hazard assessments perform in predicting damaging ground motion.

Researchers propose guidelines for the therapeutic use of melatonin

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
In an article published in Endocrine Reviews, Brazilian professors discuss the general criteria to be considered when prescribing the pineal hormone as a health supplement. The guidelines will help health professionals to analyze, understand and interpret the effects of melatonin.

New study finds employee incentives can lead to unethical behavior in the workplace

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
Findings suggest that setting compensation goals can increase dishonesty when managers are also paid a bonus for hitting certain targets.

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