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Anxious individuals are less risky, moderated by higher control when making decisions

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
New research shows that highly anxious individuals exert more cognitive control when they make a risky decision compared with less anxious individuals. This in turn leads to less risky decisions.

Ketamine acts fast to treat depression and its effects last -- but how?

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Researchers led by Mark Rasenick in the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, describe the molecular mechanisms behind ketamine's ability to squash depression and keep it at bay. They report their findings in the journal Molecular Psychiatry.

Deep data dive helps predict cerebral palsy

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
A pioneering technique developed to analyze genetic activity of Antarctic worms is helping to predict cerebral palsy. The technique uses next-generation genetic sequencing data to measure how cells control the way genes are turned on or off, and can also be used in other human health care research.

Scientists solve the case of the missing subplate, with wide implications for brain science

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
A new study shows that a group of neurons, previously thought to die in the course of development, in fact become incorporated into the brain's cortex. This research has implications for understanding -- and possibly treating --several brain disorders.

New cellular pathway helps explain how inflammation leads to artery disease

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Investigators have identified a new cellular pathway that may help explain how arterial inflammation develops into atherosclerosis -- deposits of cholesterol, fats and other substances that create plaque, clog arteries and promote heart attacks and stroke. The findings could lead to improved therapies for atherosclerosis, a leading cause of death worldwide.

Template to create superatoms, created by VCU researchers, could make for better batteries

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Virginia Commonwealth University researchers have discovered a novel strategy for creating superatoms -- combinations of atoms that can mimic the properties of more than one group of elements of the periodic table. These superatoms could be used to create new materials, including more efficient batteries and better semiconductors; a core component of microchips, transistors and most computerized devices.

First major study comparing robotic to open surgery published in The Lancet

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
The first comprehensive study comparing the outcomes of robotic surgery to those of traditional open surgery in any organ has found that the surgeries are equally effective in treating bladder cancer.

Online professional development boosts teachers' confidence, knowledge

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Multiple factors make an effective professional development (PD) program for K-12 teachers. Focusing on content, active learning, collaboration and coaching support and using effective teaching models can broaden the knowledge of science teachers. However, many teachers are short on the resources needed to attend one-time short-term PD programs. The results of one online PD program for teachers will be shared at the American Physiological Society's (APS's) Institute on Teaching and Learning in Madison, Wis.

'Exam Roulette' could quell essay-induced anxiety

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
For many students, essay tests are a source of dread and anxiety. But for professors, these tests provide an excellent way to assess a student's depth of knowledge and critical-thinking skills. At the American Physiological Society's (APS's) Institute on Teaching and Learning in Madison, Wis., Andrew Petzold, PhD, of the University of Minnesota Rochester Center for Learning Innovation, will discuss how a game of chance can lead to increased student preparation and motivation.

Study abroad for commuters: a case study at the University of New Hampshire at Manchester

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Studying abroad can impart valuable, lifelong skills, including foreign language skills, appreciation for other cultures and access to unique learning opportunities. However, the cost remains a major impediment to many students. A course at University of New Hampshire at Manchester offered a study abroad trip during spring break. The cost, a course fee, was potentially covered under financial aid that provides funds for tuition and fees, and created opportunities for commuter students to study abroad.

Police killings of unarmed black Americans affect mental health of black community

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Black Americans are nearly three times more likely to be killed by police than their white counterparts, with even larger disparities among those who are unarmed. The trend is also harming the mental health of the black community, according to new research published in The Lancet.

The Lancet: Police killings of unarmed black Americans impact mental health of wider black American population

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Police killings of unarmed black Americans have adverse effects on the mental health of black American adults in the general population, according to a new population-based study. With police killings of unarmed black Americans widely perceived to be a symptom of structural racism, the findings highlight the role of structural racism as a driver of population health disparities, and support recent calls to treat police killings as a public health issue.

New technology helps to improve treatment for NHS patients with depression

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
New technology that has been found to reduce the probability of patients with depression and anxiety deteriorating during NHS psychological treatment by 74 percent.

Medicaid Expansion increased low-income patient access to kidney transplants

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
States that fully implemented Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act saw significant increases for preemptive kidney transplant listings among black and Hispanic patients.

'Antifreeze' molecules may stop and reverse damage from brain injuries

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
The key to better treatments for brain injuries and disease may lie in the molecules charged with preventing the clumping of specific proteins associated with cognitive decline and other neurological problems, researchers from Penn report in a new study published in Neurobiology of Disease.

Scientists discover how brain signals travel to drive language performance

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Using transcranial magnetic stimulation and network control theory, researchers have taken a novel approach to understanding how signals travel across the brain's highways and how stimulation can lead to better cognitive function.

VLT makes most precise test of Einstein's general relativity outside Milky Way

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Astronomers using the ESO Very Large Telescope, and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, have made the most precise test yet of Einstein's general theory of relativity outside the Milky Way. The galaxy ESO 325-G004 distorts light from a galaxy behind it and creates an Einstein ring around its centre. By comparing the mass of ESO 325-G004 with the curvature of space around it, astronomers found that gravity on these astronomical length-scales behaves as predicted by general relativity.

Antidiabetic action of natural fatty acid derivatives not confirmed

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
A team of researchers at Sanofi and Mainz University finds no positive action of isomers of the fatty acid derivatives 5- and 9-PAHSA in diabetes models.

Coining less expensive currency: bringing down the cost of making nickels

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Cashing in on materials science, NIST makes a new nickel for use in the U.S. Mint. The work might be useful for building durable high-tech devices like smartphones, too.

Writing away the body image blues

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Body dissatisfaction among women is widespread and can lead to a number of worrisome outcomes, including eating disorders, depression and anxiety. While researchers know a lot about what makes women's body image worse, they are still short on empirically supported interventions for improving women's body image. Northwestern psychology professor Renee Engeln tested the effect of three specific writing exercises on college women's body satisfaction, along with co-author Natalie G. Stern.

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