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Stromal Gli2 activity coordinates a niche signaling program for mammary epithelial stem cells

ScienceNOW Daily News Feed - Jue, 04/20/2017 - 11:27

The stem cell niche is a complex local signaling microenvironment that sustains stem cell activity during organ maintenance and regeneration. The mammary gland niche must support its associated stem cells while also responding to systemic hormonal regulation that triggers pubertal changes. We find that Gli2, the major Hedgehog pathway transcriptional effector, acts within mouse mammary stromal cells to direct a hormone-responsive niche signaling program by activating expression of factors that regulate epithelial stem cells as well as receptors for the mammatrophic hormones estrogen and growth hormone. Whereas prior studies implicate stem cell defects in human disease, this work shows that niche dysfunction may also cause disease, with possible relevance for human disorders and in particular the breast growth pathogenesis associated with combined pituitary hormone deficiency.

Single-cell RNA-seq reveals new types of human blood dendritic cells, monocytes, and progenitors

ScienceNOW Daily News Feed - Jue, 04/20/2017 - 11:27

Dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes play a central role in pathogen sensing, phagocytosis, and antigen presentation and consist of multiple specialized subtypes. However, their identities and interrelationships are not fully understood. Using unbiased single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of ~2400 cells, we identified six human DCs and four monocyte subtypes in human blood. Our study reveals a new DC subset that shares properties with plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) but potently activates T cells, thus redefining pDCs; a new subdivision within the CD1C+ subset of DCs; the relationship between blastic plasmacytoid DC neoplasia cells and healthy DCs; and circulating progenitor of conventional DCs (cDCs). Our revised taxonomy will enable more accurate functional and developmental analyses as well as immune monitoring in health and disease.

Computer model helps explain how LIGO's black holes formed

physicsworld.com - Jue, 04/20/2017 - 10:03
COMPAS points theory behind gravitational wave detections in the right direction

Flash Physics: How to 3D print glass, more neutrons from laser fusion, cash for UK tokamak

physicsworld.com - Jue, 04/20/2017 - 06:25
Today's selection of need-to-know updates from the world of physics

Majority of parents plan to use telemedicine for pediatric care

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
New findings released today by Nemours Children's Health System show 64 percent of parents polled have used or plan to use telemedicine within the next year for their child. The survey, Telemedicine in America 2017: Parents Use of Virtual Visits, found that only 15 percent of parents have tried these services, but a strong majority is receptive to online doctor visits for common childhood ailments and routine well-child visits.

Plant's parent genes cooperate in shaping their child

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
Plant biologists discovered for the first time on how factors arising from the mother and father in flowering plants cooperate to develop the shape of their child. Until now, it has been unknown whether paternal factors cooperate or conflict with each other to bring about zygote asymmetry. The outcome of this discovery is expected to shed light on the exact mechanism of plant body shape formation and possibly lead to the generation of new hybrid plants.

Economists price BP oil spill damage to natural resources at $17.2 billion

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest maritime oil spill in US history. Almost seven years to the day after the start of the environmental disaster, researchers have published a price tag of the damage done to natural resources: $17.2 billion.

World's largest clinical cancer research meeting to highlight latest advances

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
Studies spanning the spectrum of cancer prevention and care, from immunotherapy and precision medicine to survivorship, will be highlighted in the official Press Program for the 53rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). Research results will be released in advance of and throughout the Annual Meeting, taking place June 2-6 in Chicago.

New data unearths pesticide peril in beehives

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
Honeybees -- employed to pollinate crops during the blooming season -- encounter danger due to lingering and wandering pesticides, according to a new Cornell University study that analyzed the bee's own food.

Saiful Chowdhury named ASMS 'emerging investigator' for work linked to cancer, aging

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
The American Society of Mass Spectrometry has named Saiful Chowdhury, assistant professor of chemistry and biochemistry at The University of Texas at Arlington, as one of the leading emerging investigators worldwide for his work developing new techniques using mass spectrometry to differentiate protein modifications linked to cancer and aging.

Medical history reveals multiple sclerosis begins to impact patients sooner

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
People with multiple sclerosis can show signs of something wrong five years before the onset of disease, much earlier than previously thought, according to a new analysis of health records from people with the condition.

Firms using new reporting method to 'greenwash' performance

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
New research suggests that some firms manipulate the content and tone of their company reports despite an initiative to make them more concise and balanced.The study, led by Dr Gaia Melloni at the University of East Anglia (UEA), examined a sample of firms involved in a pilot programme to produce integrated reports. These combine usually separate financial and sustainability -- environmental, social and governance -- details of a company's performance.

Do benefits outweigh risk of mind-altering drug use by healthy individuals?

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
Study examines use of psychoactive drugs to enhance cognition, creativity, and pleasure.

Clostridium difficile infections linked to higher death rates if infection recurs

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
Two presentations at the 27th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) show that repeated infection with the bacterium Clostridium difficile (C. difficile), which causes stomach upsets and diarrhoea, is linked to higher death rates, as well as having a significant impact on health services in terms of cost and hospital beds occupied.

Renown researchers present at ASN Scientific Sessions to advance the science of stevia

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
To examine the latest scientific evidence related to non-caloric sweeteners, focused on stevia, the Global Stevia Institute is hosting a sponsored symposium on Saturday, April 22 from Noon - 3:00 PM at the American Society for Nutrition (ASN) Scientific Sessions, taking place at the annual Experimental Biology conference in Chicago.

Application of statistical method shows promise mitigating climate change effects on pine

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
Confronting evidence that the global climate is changing rapidly relative to historical trends, researchers at North Carolina State University have developed a new statistical model that, when applied to the loblolly pine tree populations in the southeastern United States, will benefit forest landowners and the forest industry in future decades. The research, titled 'Optimal Seed Deployment Under Climate Change Using Spatial Models: Application to Loblolly Pine in the Southeastern US' appears in the Journal of The American Statistical Association.

Effects of alcoholism on the brain's reward system may be different in women than in men

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
A collaborative study between researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital and Boston University School of Medicine has found evidence implying that alcoholism may have different effects on the reward system in the brains of women than it does in men.

Study shows hearing tests miss common form of hearing loss

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
Traditional clinical hearing tests often fail to diagnose patients with a common form of inner ear damage that might otherwise be detected by more challenging behavioral tests, according to the findings of a University at Buffalo-led study published in the journal Frontiers in Neuroscience.

Giardiasis may be a disease of the ecology of the GI tract

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
Colonization by the human and animal parasite, Giardia, changed the species composition of the mouse microbiome in a way that might be harmful. The research is published in Infection and Immunity, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology.

JNeurosci: Highlights from the April 19 issue

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
Check out these newsworthy studies from the April 19, 2017, issue of JNeurosci. Media interested in obtaining the full text of the studies should contact media@sfn.org.

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