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Bacterial organizational complexities revealed

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
For the first time, scientists have visualized the fine details of bacterial microcompartment shells -- the organisms' submicroscopic nanoreactors, which are comprised completely of protein.

Research suggests sexual appeals in ads don't sell brands, products

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Ads with sexual appeals are more likely to be remembered but don't sell the brand or product, according to a meta-analysis of nearly 80 advertising studies, published online this week by the International Journal of Advertising. Researchers found no positive effect on study participants' ability to remember the brands featured in such ads or on their intention to buy the product. The research was led by University of Illinois advertising professor John Wirtz.

Mouse study suggests how hearing a warning sound turns into fearing it over time

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
An adult mouse model reveals that changes in lattice-like structures in the brain known as perineuronal nets are necessary to 'capture' an auditory fear association and 'haul' it in as a longer-term memory.

New design improves performance of flexible wearable electronics

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
In a proof-of-concept study, North Carolina State University engineers have designed a flexible thermoelectric energy harvester that has the potential to rival the effectiveness of existing power wearable electronic devices using body heat as the only source of energy.

A rising star

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
It's a tiny marine invertebrate, no more than 3 millimeters in size. But closely related to humans, Botryllus schlosseri might hold the key to new treatments for cancer and a host of vascular diseases.

How do genes get new jobs? Wasp venom offers new insights

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
In a study published in Current Biology on June 22, the lab of Professor John Werren at the University of Rochester describes how four closely related species of parasitic wasps change their venoms rapidly in order to adapt to new hosts, and proposes that co-option of single copy genes may be a common but relatively understudied mechanism of evolution for new gene functions, particularly under conditions of rapid evolutionary change.

New biomarker assay detects neuroblastoma with greater sensitivity

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Investigators at The Saban Research Institute of Children's Hospital Los Angeles have developed and tested a new biomarker assay for quantifying disease and detecting the presence of neuroblastoma even when standard evaluations yield negative results for the disease. Researchers provide the first systematic comparison of standard imaging evaluations versus the new assay that screens for five different neuroblastoma-associated genes and determine that the new assay improves disease assessment and provides prediction of disease progression.

UM research points to previously unknown pine marten diversity

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
The elusive American pine marten, a little-studied member of the weasel family, might be more diverse than originally thought, according to new research published by a University of Montana professor.

Study examines gun policy preferences across racial groups

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Support for all forms of gun control is stronger among Latinos and blacks than whites, according to researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago.

UK Chemistry researchers develop catalyst that mimics the z-scheme of photosynthesis

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Published in Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, the study demonstrates a process with great potential for developing technologies for reducing CO2 levels.

How eggs got their shapes

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
The evolution of the amniotic egg -- complete with membrane and shell -- was key to vertebrates leaving the oceans and colonizing the land and air but how bird eggs evolved into so many different shapes and sizes has long been a mystery. Now, an international team of scientists took a quantitative approach to that question and found that adaptations for flight may have been critical drivers of egg-shape variation in birds.

Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them.

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
EPFL researchers have found a way around what was considered a fundamental limitation of physics for over 100 years. They were able to conceive resonant systems that can store electromagnetic waves over a long period of time while maintaining a broad bandwidth. Their study, which has just been published in Science, opens up a number of doors, particularly in telecommunications.

Piling on pressure solves enduring mystery about metal's makeup

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Extreme pressure experiments and powerful supercomputing have enabled scientists to solve a decades-old puzzle about the fundamental properties of the widely used metal lithium.

Ancient Egyptians to modern humans: Coronary artery disease genes benefit reproduction

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Researchers have found that genes for coronary heart disease (CAD) also influence reproduction, so in order to reproduce successfully, the genes for heart disease will also be inherited.

Switchable DNA mini-machines store information

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Biomedical engineers have built simple machines out of DNA, consisting of arrays whose units switch reversibly between two different shapes.The arrays' inventors say they could be harnessed to make nanotech sensors or amplifiers. Potentially, they could be combined to form logic gates, the parts of a molecular computer.

Study sheds light on how bacterial organelles assemble

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Scientists at Berkeley Lab and Michigan State University are providing the clearest view yet of an intact bacterial microcompartment, revealing at atomic-level resolution the structure and assembly of the organelle's protein shell. This work could benefit research in bioenergy and pathogenesis, and it could lead to new methods of bioengineering bacteria for beneficial purposes.

Using science to combat addiction

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
In this Policy Forum, Keith Humphreys and colleagues highlight the need for science, and particularly neuroscience, to inform policies that address addiction.

Finally, understanding how the sun's spicules are made

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
For the first time, researchers have built a model that accurately explains the formation of abundant jets of plasma in the Sun's atmosphere, called spicules.

Greater emphasis on preventing, treating heart disease in women needed

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Women and physicians do not put enough emphasis on cardiovascular disease in women, and a social stigma regarding body weight may be a primary barrier to these important discussions, according to research publishing today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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