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NASA sees fading Florence's stretched-out strongest storms

EurekAlert! - Lun, 09/17/2018 - 22:00
NASA's Aqua satellite provided an infrared look at fading Post-Tropical Cyclone Florence's clouds, revealing where the strongest thunderstorms were located. Those strong thunderstorms stretched from the Mid-Atlantic to New England.

How cells repurpose their garbage disposal systems to promote inflammation

EurekAlert! - Lun, 09/17/2018 - 22:00
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have unraveled new insights into the way cells leverage G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their cellular waste disposal systems to control inflammation. The findings, published Sept. 18, 2018 in Cell Reports, suggest some existing cancer drugs that inhibit these cellular activities might be repurposed to treat vascular inflammation, which occurs when artery-blocking plaques form in atherosclerosis.

Machine-learning system tackles speech and object recognition, all at once

EurekAlert! - Lun, 09/17/2018 - 22:00
MIT computer scientists have developed a system that learns to identify objects within an image, based on a spoken description of the image. Given an image and an audio caption, the model will highlight in real-time the relevant regions of the image being described.

Use of electrical brain stimulation to foster creativity has sweeping implications

EurekAlert! - Lun, 09/17/2018 - 22:00
In an article published in Creativity Research Journal, Georgetown researchers address neuro-ethical concerns associated with the increasing use of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES).

Geoscientists find unexpected 'deep creep' near San Andreas, San Jacinto faults

EurekAlert! - Lun, 09/17/2018 - 22:00
A new analysis of thousands of very small earthquakes in the San Bernardino basin suggests that the unusual deformation of some may be due to 'deep creep' 10 km below the Earth's surface, say geoscientists at UMass Amherst. They say scientists should not use the information recorded by these small earthquakes to predict loading of the nearby San Andreas and San Jacinto faults.

A new defender for your sense of smell

EurekAlert! - Lun, 09/17/2018 - 22:00
New research from the Monell Center increases understanding of a mysterious sensory cell located in the olfactory epithelium, the patch of nasal tissue that contains odor-detecting olfactory receptor cells. The findings suggest that the so-called microvillous cells (MVCs) may protect the vulnerable olfactory epithelium by detecting and initiating defenses against viruses, bacteria, and other potentially harmful invaders.

Researchers investigate correlation between blood flow and body position

EurekAlert! - Lun, 09/17/2018 - 22:00
For the first time ever, an international research group detected alterations in capillary blood flow around the face caused by body position change. This became possible through the use of imaging photoplethysmography. Using this method, scientists can examine blood vessels located in the carotid system in order to, for example, investigate the cerebral blood flow response to various stimuli in health and disease. The results of the research were published in Scientific Reports.

CRISPR screen reveals new targets in more than half of all squamous cell carcinomas

EurekAlert! - Lun, 09/17/2018 - 22:00
Team of University of Colorado Cancer Center researchers sheds light on p63 activity in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, providing an actionable path forward to drug development against this known cause of cancer.

Why some human genes are more popular with researchers than others

EurekAlert! - Lun, 09/17/2018 - 22:00
Historical bias is a key reason why biomedical researchers continue to study the same 10 percent of all human genes while ignoring many genes known to play roles in disease, according to a study publishing Sept. 18 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology, led by Thomas Stoeger and Luís Amaral of Northwestern University, and colleagues. This bias is bolstered by research funding mechanisms and social forces.

Study reveals best available science for predator-livestock coexistence

EurekAlert! - Lun, 09/17/2018 - 22:00
A new study published in the peer-reviewed journal PLOS Biology reveals certain nonlethal methods are effective for managing predators in agricultural landscapes. Twenty-one authors from 10 nations reviewed 114 peer-reviewed scientific studies measuring the effectiveness of lethal and non-lethal methods for reducing carnivore predation on livestock. Livestock guardian dogs, livestock enclosures and fladry all were scientifically shown to be effective conflict deterrents.

Study explains why some human genes are more popular with researchers than others

EurekAlert! - Lun, 09/17/2018 - 22:00
Historical bias is a key reason biomedical researchers continue to study the same 10 percent of all human genes whose sequences are known while ignoring many genes known to play roles in disease, according to a Northwestern University study. The bias is bolstered by research funding mechanisms and social forces. Well-meaning policy interventions to promote exploratory research result primarily in additional work on genes first characterized in the 1980s and 1990s, before completion of the Human Genome Project.

Eating foods with low nutritional quality ratings linked to cancer risk in large European cohort

EurekAlert! - Lun, 09/17/2018 - 22:00
The consumption of foods with higher scores on the British Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system (FSAm-NPS), reflecting a lower nutritional quality, is associated with an increased risk of developing cancer, according to a study published this week in PLOS Medicine.

Distance helps re-fuel the heart

EurekAlert! - Lun, 09/17/2018 - 22:00
Separated entry and exit doors for calcium keep energy production smooth in the powerhouses of heart cells.

Capitalizing on sleep-wake cycle can drastically increase digital ad profits from social media

EurekAlert! - Lun, 09/17/2018 - 22:00
New Notre Dame research shows digital content platforms can increase traffic to their websites from social media and boost digital ad profits by at least 8 percent, simply by aligning their posting schedules with target audiences' sleep-wake cycles.

NASA infrared imagery reveals wind shearing Tropical Depression Joyce

EurekAlert! - Lun, 09/17/2018 - 22:00
NASA's Aqua satellite provided an infrared look at Tropical Depression Joyce and found wind shear was pushing the bulk of clouds and showers to the east of the center.

Researchers predict invasion risk of starry stonewort in upper Midwest

EurekAlert! - Lun, 09/17/2018 - 22:00
Researchers from the Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center recently published a new paper predicting the risk of starry stonewort invasion in Minnesota and Wisconsin.

Searching for errors in the quantum world

EurekAlert! - Lun, 09/17/2018 - 22:00
The theory of quantum mechanics is well supported by experiments. Now, however, a thought experiment by ETH physicists yields unexpected contradictions. These findings raise some fundamental questions -- and they're polarising experts.

First gut bacteria may have lasting effect on ability to fight chronic diseases

EurekAlert! - Lun, 09/17/2018 - 22:00
New research showing that the first bacteria introduced into the gut have a lasting impact, may one day allow science to adjust microbiomes -- the one-of-a-kind microbial communities that live in our gastrointestinal tracts -- to help ward off serious chronic diseases.

Penn researchers: Class of neurological disorders share 3D genome folding pattern

EurekAlert! - Lun, 09/17/2018 - 22:00
Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have found a new common thread linking nearly all of the trinucleotide repeat expansion diseases, which include ALS, Huntington's Disease and Fragile X Syndrome, involving the complicated 3D patterns that the DNA is folded into in order to fit in the nucleus of the cell. Nearly all of the short tandem repeats known to grow unstable in disease are located at the boundaries that separate neighboring folded domains.

Greater than the sum of its parts

EurekAlert! - Lun, 09/17/2018 - 22:00
Argonne scientists and their collaborators have developed a new model that merges basic electrochemical theory with theories used in different contexts, such as the study of photoelectrochemistry and semiconductor physics, to describe phenomena that occur in any electrode.

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