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Key psychiatric drug target comes into focus

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Researchers at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, UC San Francisco, and Stanford University solved the crystal structure of a specific dopamine receptor called D4 at an incredibly high resolution -- the highest for any dopamine, serotonin, or adrenalin receptor to date -- allowing them to design a new compound to precisely probe these potential drug targets like never before with the hope of designing drugs with fewer side effects.

Memory rides the ripples for long-term storage

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Dion Khodagholy and colleagues have observed coordination between high-frequency oscillations (or brain waves) called 'ripples' in the rat hippocampus and parts of the brain called the association cortex.

The evolution of fan-propelled water strider insects into new environments

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Researchers have discovered two genes underlying the evolution of a water striding insect fan used for locomotion, which they say were essential for survival in fast-flowing stream environments.

The mouth may act as a hub for intestinal disease-causing bacteria

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Scientists say the mouth may act as a reservoir for intestinal disease-causing bacteria that exacerbate conditions including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and Crohn's disease (CD).

Study shows how nerves drive prostate cancer

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
In a study in today's issue of Science, researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, part of Montefiore Medicine, report that certain nerves sustain prostate cancer growth by triggering a switch that causes tumor vessels to proliferate. Their earlier research -- which first implicated nerves in fueling prostate cancer -- has prompted Montefiore-Einstein to conduct a pilot study testing whether beta blockers (commonly used for treating hypertension) can kill cancer cells in tumors of men diagnosed with prostate cancer.

Liquid metal discovery ushers in new wave of chemistry and electronics

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Researchers use liquid metal to create atom-thick 2-D never before seen in nature. The research could transform how we do chemistry and could also be applied to enhance data storage and make faster electronics.

Study reveals key molecular link in major cell growth pathway

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
A team of scientists led by Whitehead Institute has uncovered a surprising molecular link that connects how cells regulate growth with how they sense and make available the nutrients required for growth. The researchers' findings also implicate a new protein, SLC38A9, as a potential drug target in pancreatic cancer.

Scientists map monogamy, jealousy in the monkey mind

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
A recent study at the California National Primate Research Center studied jealousy in pair-bonded titi monkeys. The study was part of a larger study examining the neurobiology of pair-bonded primate species.

CCNY psychologists develop new model that links emotions and mental health

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
For decades psychologists have studied how people regulate emotions using a multitude of ways to conceptualize and assess emotion regulation. Now a recent study published this week in the journal PLOS ONE by Elliot Jurist and David M. Greenberg of The City College of New York, shows how a new assessment model can give clinicians an exciting new way to think about clinical diagnoses including anxiety, mood, and developmental disorders.

Rheumatoid Arthritis linked to an increased risk of COPD

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
New research suggests that rheumatoid arthritis may increase the risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Creating a better RNA switch

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Northwestern University researchers have developed a new RNA switch that activates genes thousands of times better than nature and has applications in diagnostics and metabolic engineering.

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Many of today's technologies, such as, solid-state lighting, transistors in computer chips, and batteries in cell phones rely simply on the charge of the electron and how it moves through the material. In certain materials, such as the monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), electrons can be selectively placed into a chosen electronic valley using optical excitation.

Veterans study reports reduction in suicide ideation after HBOT

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
A case control study of armed forces veterans with mild traumatic brain injury or persistent post-concussion syndrome, with or without PTSD, has found significant improvements in persistent post-concussion syndrome and PTSD symptoms, memory, intelligence quotient, attention, cognition, depression, quality of life, and brain blood flow, as well as a significant reduction in suicidal ideation and anxiety following hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

How genes and environment interact to raise risk of congenital heart defects

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Infants of mothers with diabetes have a three- to five-fold increased risk of congenital heart defects. Such developmental defects are likely caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. However, the molecular mechanisms by which maternal diabetes disrupts normal heart development in genetically susceptible individuals remain unclear. In a new study, researchers describe a gene-environment interaction resulting in congenital heart defects in both mouse and fly model systems.

Researchers find shifting relationship between flexibility, modularity in the brain

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
A Rice University study has found negative correlation between flexibility and modularity in the brain. Understanding how they interact is essential to the advance of neuroscience, the researchers said. Flexibility allows for better performance on complex tasks, and modularity allows proficiency on simple tasks.

Specialized communication narratives help couples deal with miscarriage

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Anywhere from 10 to 25 percent of clinically recognized pregnancies end in loss, according to the American Pregnancy Association, making miscarriage a socially significant health issue. A recent University of Missouri study examined how men also have to cope with their partner's miscarriage and how married couples can use 'communicated perspective-taking' to cope. The findings could help couples cope with miscarriage while also informing practitioners who treat anxiety and stress.

Terahertz spectroscopy goes nano

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Brown University researchers have improved the resolution of terahertz emission spectroscopy -- a technique used to study a wide variety of materials -- by 1,000-fold, making the technique useful at the nanoscale.

Fundamental research enhances understanding of major cancer gene

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
A collaboration between Babraham Institute scientists and AstraZeneca provides new insights into the role of PTEN, a major cancer gene, in controlling cell growth and behaviour. PTEN is the second most commonly altered gene in human cancers, particularly prostate cancers, and this work could help to develop and target new treatments.

Insulin signaling molecule in liver controls levels of triglyceride in blood

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
A new animal study shows how insulin controls the movement and storage of fat molecules in the liver and how a breakdown in this system could lead to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and changes in circulating lipid levels associated with cardiovascular disease.

Cleaning up? Not without helpers

EurekAlert! - Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Freiburg scientists explain assembly and transport function of 'old' calcium pumps by 'new' partner proteins.

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