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Personalized exoskeletons are taking support one step farther

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Researchers have developed an exoskeleton system that provides personalized support for its user. In healthy volunteers, the optimized exoskeleton reduced energy expenditure during walking by 24 percent, on average, compared to when the system was not providing personalized support.

Flight ability of birds affects the shape of their eggs

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Many different theories exist as to why the shape of bird eggs varies so much across species, and now, new research yields evidence that variable egg shape is driven by unique flight adaptations.

New efficient, low-temperature catalyst for hydrogen production

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Scientists have developed a new low-temperature catalyst for producing high-purity hydrogen gas while simultaneously using up carbon monoxide (CO). The discovery could improve the performance of fuel cells that run on hydrogen fuel but can be poisoned by CO.

Cracking the mystery of avian egg shape

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
According to new research, egg shape in birds is related to adaptations for efficient flight -- and a mechanistic model reveals how different egg shapes may be formed.

Localized signaling islands in cells: New targets for precision drug design

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
New research overturns long-held views on a basic messaging system within living cells. Key cellular communication machinery is more regionally constrained within the cell than previously thought. The findings suggest new approaches to designing precision drugs. Localizing drug action at a specific 'address' within the cell could mean fewer side effects in treating cancer, diabetes, heart disease and other serious conditions.

Cancer cells may streamline their genomes in order to proliferate more easily

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Research from the Stowers Institute provides evidence suggesting that cancer cells might streamline their genomes in order to proliferate more easily. The study, conducted in both human and mouse cells, shows that cancer genomes lose copies of repetitive sequences known as ribosomal DNA. While downsizing might enable these cells to replicate faster, it also seems to render them less able to withstand DNA damage.

Nearly half of US women don't know heart disease is their No. 1 killer

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Women and their physicians are largely uneducated when it comes to females and heart disease, putting women's health and lives at greater risk, a new study out today shows. The study, published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, shows that 45 percent of US women are not aware that heart disease is the No. 1 killer of women.

Scientists uncover potential mechanism for HPV-induced skin cancer

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Scientists have identified a molecular pathway by which some types of human papilloma virus (HPV) might increase the risk of skin cancer, particularly in people with the rare genetic disorder epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). The novel pathway is described in PLOS Pathogens.

New brain network model could explain differences in brain injuries

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Considering the brain's network of activity, rather than just individual regions, could help us understand why some brain injuries are much worse than others, according to a study published PLOS Computational Biology by Maxwell B. Wang, Julia Owen, and Pratik Mukherjee from University of California, San Francisco, and Ashish Raj from Weill Cornell Medicine.

Human genes for coronary artery disease make them more prolific parents

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Coronary artery disease may have persisted in human populations because the genes that cause this late-striking disease also contribute to greater numbers of children, reports Dr Sean Byars of The University of Melbourne and Associate Professor Michael Inouye of the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Australia, in a study published June 22, 2017 in PLOS Genetics.

Simulated honeybees can use simple brain circuits for complex learning

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Honeybees may not need key brain structures known as mushroom bodies in order to learn complex associations between odors and rewards, according to new research published in PLOS Computational Biology.

First Chikungunya-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitos found in Brazil

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
While more than 13,000 cases of Chikungunya viral disease were reported in Brazil in 2015, scientists had never before detected the virus in a captured mosquito in this country. Now, researchers reporting in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases have identified a mosquito -- caught in the Brazilian city of Aracaju -- that's naturally infected with the East-Central-South-African (ECSA) genotype of Chikungunya.

Tiny nanoparticles offer significant potential in detecting/treating disease new review of work on exosomes

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Exosomes - tiny biological nanoparticles which transfer information between cells - offer significant potential in detecting and treating disease, the most comprehensive overview so far of research in the field has concluded. Areas which could benefit include cancer treatment and regenerative medicine.

How pythons regenerate their organs and other secrets of the snake genome

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Snakes exhibit incredible evolutionary adaptations, including the ability to rapidly regenerate their organs and produce venom. The Castoe group at the University of Texas at Arlington studied these adaptations using genetic sequencing and advanced computing. Supercomputers of the Texas Advanced Computing Center helped the team identify a number of genes associated with organ growth in Burmese pythons, study secondary contact in related rattlesnake species, and develop tools to recognize evolutionary changes caused by natural selection.

Proton pump inhibitors do not contribute to dementia or Alzheimer's disease

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Noting that the prescription of proton pump inhibitors is on the rise among middle-aged and older adults, a team of researchers designed a new study to examine PPIs and the risk of dementia, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. They published their study in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

High fat diet reduces gut bacteria, Crohn's disease symptoms

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Researchers at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine have shown a high fat diet may lead to specific changes in gut bacteria that could fight harmful inflammation -- a major discovery for patients suffering from Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease, a type of inflammatory bowel syndrome, causes debilitating intestinal swelling, cramping, and diarrhea. The disease affects half a million people in the United States, but its cause is yet unclear.

NASA's infrared and radar eyes in space cast on Tropical Storm Cindy

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
NASA's Aqua satellite analyzed Tropical Storm Cindy in infrared light to identify areas of strongest storms and the Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM satellite found locations of heaviest rainfall as Cindy was making landfall along the US Gulf Coast states.

Popular prostate drug linked to serious side effects

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with the commonly prescribed Avodart (Dutsteride) may put men at an increased risk for diabetes, elevated cholesterol levels, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and worsening erectile dysfunction.

Sea sponges stay put with anchors that bend but don't break

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
The anchors that hold Venus' flower basket sea sponges to the ocean floor have an internal architecture that increases their ability to bend, according to a new study. Understanding that natural architecture could inform future human-made materials.

NASA's Webb telescope gets freezing summertime lodging in Houston

EurekAlert! - Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
NASA's James Webb Space Telescope was placed in Johnson Space Center's historic Chamber A on June 20, 2017, to prepare for its final three months of testing in a cryogenic vacuum that mimics temperatures in space.

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