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Study overturns seminal research about the developing nervous system

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
New research by scientists at the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA overturns a long-standing paradigm about how axons grow during embryonic development. The findings of the study, led by Samantha Butler, associate professor of neurobiology, could help scientists replicate or control the way axons grow, which may be applicable for diseases that affect the nervous system, such as diabetes, as well as injuries that sever nerves.

Hubble observes first multiple images of explosive distance indicator

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
A Swedish-led team of astronomers used the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to analyze the multiple images of a gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova for the first time. The four images of the exploding star will be used to measure the expansion of the Universe. This can be done without any theoretical assumptions about the cosmological model, giving further clues about how fast the Universe is really expanding. The results are published in the journal Science.

Recognizing foreign accents helps brains process accented speech

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
Our brains process foreign-accented speech with better real-time accuracy if we can identify the accent we hear, according to a team of neurolinguists.

Rising water temperatures endanger health of coastal ecosystems, study finds

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
Marine biologists James Hollibaugh and Sylvia Schaefer found that rising water temperatures could disrupt ocean food webs and lead to the release of more greenhouse gases.

Genetic evidence points to nocturnal early mammals

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
New genetic evidence suggesting that early mammals had good night-time vision adds to fossil and behavioral studies indicating that early mammals were nocturnal.

Medicaid expansion linked with increase in prescriptions filled for chronic conditions

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
During the first one and a half years of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the number of prescriptions filled by adults using Medicaid coverage increased by 19 percent in states that expanded Medicaid compared to states that did not, according to a new study from a Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health researcher and colleagues. The largest increases were for medications to manage chronic conditions such as diabetes, and for birth control.

The weird chemistry threatening masterpiece paintings (video)

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
A good art dealer can really clean up in today's market, but not when some weird soap-making chemistry wreaks havoc on masterpieces. Since you have no time to watch paint dry, we explain how paintings from Rembrandts to O'Keefes are threatened by their own compositions -- and not just the imagery. Watch the latest Speaking of Chemistry video here: https://youtu.be/w2ww5aUJD8s.

Is soda bad for your brain? (and is diet soda worse?)

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
New research suggests that excess sugar -- especially the fructose in sugary drinks -- might damage your brain. Researchers at Boston University found that people who drink sugary beverages frequently are more likely to have poorer memory, smaller overall brain volume, and a significantly smaller hippocampus. A follow-up study found that people who drank diet soda daily were almost three times as likely to develop stroke and dementia when compared to those who did not.

Environmental 'memories' passed on for 14 generations

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
Scientists at the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) in Barcelona and the Josep Carreras Leukaemia Research Institute and The Institute for Health Science Research Germans Trias i Pujol (IGTP) in Badalona, Spain, have discovered that the impact of environmental change can be passed on in the genes of tiny nematode worms for at least 14 generations -- the most that has ever been seen in animals. The findings will be published on Friday, April 21, in the journal Science.

Same but different

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
Bacterial populations pose an intriguing puzzle: in so-called isogenic populations, all bacteria have the same genes, but they still behave differently, for example grow at different speeds. Researchers at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) now solved a part of this puzzle by studying how the bacterium Escherichia coli divides up a protein complex that detoxifies cells by pumping multiple drugs such as antibiotics out of the cell.

Light rays from a supernova bent by the curvature of space-time around a galaxy

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
An international research team led by Ariel Goobar at Stockholm University has detected for the first time multiple images from a gravitationally lensed Type Ia supernova. The new observations suggest promising new avenues for the study of the accelerated expansion of the universe, gravity and distribution of dark matter in the universe.

New quantum liquid crystals may play role in future of computers

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
First 3-D quantum liquid crystals may have applications in quantum computing.

New behavioral intervention targets Latino men at high risk of HIV infection

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
Men who have sex with men (MSM) accounted for two thirds of all new HIV infections in the United States, with 26 percent occurring in Latinos, according to 2014 data. If those rates continue, it is estimated that one in four Latino MSM may be diagnosed with HIV during his lifetime.

Rare supernova discovery ushers in new era for cosmology

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
With from an automated supernova-hunting pipeline based at NERSC, astronomers have captured multiple images of a gravitationally lensed Type 1a supernova. This detection is currently the only one of its kind, but astronomers believe that if they can find more they may be able to measure the rate of the Universe's expansion within four percent accuracy. Fortunately, two Berkeley Lab researchers do have a method for identifying more of these events using existing wide-field surveys.

Rare brightening of a supernova's light found by Caltech's Palomar Observatory

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
An international team of astronomers has, for the first time, seen a cosmic magnification of the light from a class of supernova called Type Ia.

Empowerment of women worldwide key to achieving competing goals

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
An interdisciplinary teams of experts argue that world hunger and biodiversity loss can both be addressed by ensuring that women worldwide have access to education and contraception.

Using venomous proteins to make insect milkshakes

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
In a just-published paper in the journal PLOS Pathogens, Adler Dillman, an assistant professor at the University of California, Riverside and several collaborators found that nematodes secrete a deadly cocktail of proteins to kill many insects that damage crops. The finding overturns a long-held belief that it is exclusively bacteria, working in conjunction with nematodes, that kill the insects.

BP oil spill did $17.2 billion in damage to natural resources, scientists find

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
The 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill did $17.2 billion in damage to the natural resources in the Gulf of Mexico, a team of scientists recently found after a six-year study of the impact of the largest oil spill in US history.

Study: Accomplished female scientists often overlooked

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
Invited speakers at neuroimmunology conferences in 2016 were disproportionately male, and not because male scientists were producing higher quality work, according to a new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. Instead, a review of papers published in high-impact journals showed that qualified female scientists were overlooked by organizing committees.

Scientists uncover details on the rise of a tick-borne disease on Long Island

EurekAlert! - Mié, 04/19/2017 - 22:00
Scientists at the Center for Infection and Immunity (CII) at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health report elevated levels of a pathogen responsible for the tick-borne disease babesiosis in Suffolk County, New York, where rates are the highest in the state. Results are published in the journal mSphere.

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