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Preterm birth linked to higher risk of heart failure

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Babies born preterm run a higher risk of heart failure during childhood and adolescence than those born at full term, researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden report. The registry-based study is published in The Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC).

Experimental therapy for immune diseases hits Achilles heel of activated T cells

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Immune diseases like multiple sclerosis and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis unleash destructive waves of inflammation on the body, causing death or a lifetime of illness and physical impairment. With safe and effective treatments in short supply, scientists report in PNAS Early Edition discovery of an experimental treatment that targets an Achilles heel of activated immune cells -- killing them off and stopping autoimmune damage.

Biofilm discovery suggests new way to prevent dangerous infections

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
By some estimates, more than 1 million people contract infections from medical devices in US hospitals each year, many of which are due to biofilms. A new study suggests a possible new way to prevent such biofilms from forming, which would sharply reduce incidents of related hospital-borne infection.

People perceive attractive scientists as more interesting but less able, studies show

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
A new study published today in Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) from researchers at the University of Cambridge and the University of Essex suggests that when it comes to judging scientists, we are more likely to find an attractive scientist interesting, but more likely to consider their less attractive colleagues to be better scientists.

Intestinal fungi worsen alcoholic liver disease

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Liver cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of mortality worldwide and approximately half of those deaths are due to alcohol abuse. Yet apart from alcohol abstinence, there are no specific treatments to reduce the severity of alcohol-associated liver disease. Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine and J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) have linked intestinal fungi to increased risk of death for patients with alcohol-related liver disease.

Himalayan powerhouses: How Sherpas have evolved superhuman energy efficiency

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Sherpas have evolved to become superhuman mountain climbers, extremely efficient at producing the energy to power their bodies even when oxygen is scarce, suggests new research published today in the Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

Protective responses appear weaker in neural stem cells from Huntington disease patients

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
A multi-institutional team based at Massachusetts General Hospital has discovered how a potential treatment strategy for Huntington disease (HD) produces its effects, verified its action in human cells and identified a previously unknown deficit in neural stem cells from patients with HD.

Predictive models may help determine which patients benefit from ICDs

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Two predictive models may help cardiologists decide which patients would most benefit from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), suggests a new study published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. According to the researchers, confirming the findings in a larger, randomized trial could lead to new national guidelines for choosing patients who are good candidates for ICD implantation.

The right thing to do: Why do we follow unspoken group rules?

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
How you dress, talk, eat and even what you allow yourself to feel -- these often unspoken rules of a group are social norms, and many are internalized to such a degree that you probably don't even notice them. Following norms, however, can sometimes be costly for individuals if norms require sacrifice for the good of the group. How and why did humans evolve to follow such norms in the first place?

3.3-million-year-old fossil reveals origins of the human spine

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Analysis of a 3.3 million-year-old fossil skeleton reveals the most complete spinal column of any early human relative, including vertebrae, neck and rib cage. The findings, published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, indicate that portions of the human spinal structure that enable efficient walking motions were established millions of years earlier than previously thought.

Scientists find 7.2-million-year-old pre-human remains in the Balkans

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Scientists analyzing 7.2 million-year-old fossils uncovered in modern-day Greece and Bulgaria suggest a new hypothesis about the origins of humankind, placing it in the Eastern Mediterranean and not -- as customarily assumed -- in Africa, and earlier than currently accepted. The researchers conclude that Graecopithecus freybergi represents the first pre-humans to exist following the split from the last chimpanzee-human common ancestor.

Johns Hopkins study shows one of the deadliest hospital-acquired infections is preventable

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
In a recent paper published online in the journal Critical Care Medicine, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Armstrong Institute of Patient Safety and Quality led a study that demonstrated that health care providers can take steps to curb ventilator-associated events.

Weathering of rocks a poor regulator of global temperatures

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Evidence from the age of the dinosaurs to today shows that chemical weathering of rocks is less sensitive to global temperature, and may depend on the steepness of the surface. The results call into question the role of rocks in setting our planet's temperature over millions of years.

Obamacare support: When polls mention repeal it seals the deal

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Does the American public want former President Obama's health care law repealed and replaced? It depends on how you ask the question.

UNLV study: Warming news from Russia

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
UNLV research in Russia challenges widely held understanding of past climate history; study appears in latest issue of top journal Nature Geoscience.

Micro delivery service for fertilizers

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Plants can absorb nutrients through their leaves as well as their roots. However, foliar fertilization over an extended period is difficult. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, German researchers have now introduced an efficient delivery system for micronutrients based on biohybrid microgels. Special peptides anchor the 'microcontainers' onto the leaf surface while binding sites inside ensure gradual release of the 'cargo'.

Scientists propose synestia, a new type of planetary object

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
There's something new to look for in the heavens, and it's called a 'synestia,' according to planetary scientists Simon Lock at Harvard University and Sarah Stewart at UC Davis. A synestia, they propose, would be a huge, spinning, donut-shaped mass of hot, vaporized rock, formed as planet-sized objects smash into each other.

Researchers find computer code that Volkswagen used to cheat emissions tests

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
An international team of researchers has uncovered the mechanism that allowed Volkswagen to circumvent US and European emission tests over at least six years before the Environmental Protection Agency put the company on notice in 2015 for violating the Clean Air Act. During a year-long investigation, researchers found code that allowed a car's onboard computer to determine that the vehicle was undergoing an emissions test.

Kepler telescope spies details of TRAPPIST-1 system's outermost planet

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
A University of Washington-led international team of astronomers has used data gathered by the Kepler Space Telescope to observe and confirm details of the outermost of seven exoplanets or-biting the star TRAPPIST-1.

NASA adds up record Australia rainfall

EurekAlert! - Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Over the week of May 15, extreme rainfall drenched northeastern Australia and NASA data provided a look at the record totals.

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