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Calibrating cosmic mile markers

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
New work from the Carnegie Supernova Project provides the best-yet calibrations for using type Ia supernovae to measure cosmic distances, which has implications for our understanding of how fast the universe is expanding and the role dark energy may play in driving this process. The research was led by Carnegie astronomer Chris Burns.

The costs and trade-offs of reforming long-term care for older people

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
New research reveals the costs and trade-offs of reforming long-term care for older people in England. The report comes ahead of a long-awaited government Green Paper on Social Care. It shows that a £36,000 lifetime cap on care costs for older people (similar to that recommended by Dilnot in 2011) would cost £3.6 billion by 2035, and that rolling out a minimum level of social care to all older people with high needs and limited resources would cost a similar amount.

New understanding of mysterious 'hereditary swelling'

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
For the first time ever, biomedical researchers from Aarhus University, Denmark, have unveiled cellular defects that lead to the rare disease hereditary angioedema (HAE), where patients experience recurrent episodes of swelling that requires immediate treatment. This new understanding is an important step towards gene therapy for patients.

Paternal grandfather's high access to food may indicate higher mortality risk in grandsons

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
A paternal grandfather's access to food during his childhood is associated with mortality risk, especially cancer mortality, in his grandson, shows a large three-generational study from Stockholm University. The reason might be epigenetic -- that environmental exposures in one generation may influence health outcomes in following generations.

New approach towards an improved treatment of anxiety disorders

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
Traumatic experiences can become deeply entrenched in a person's memory. How can fears following a traumatic event be reduced in the long term and prevented from becoming a permanent stress-related disorder? Researchers at the Mainz University Medical Center have recently shed new light on these questions.

Researchers at LSTM identify additional mechanisms at play in insecticide resistance

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
Researchers at LSTM have used a bioinformatics approach to integrate information from multiple studies on insecticide resistance in mosquitoes and uncovered a number of important resistance mechanisms that had not previously been recognised.

The contribution of international academics to UK must be recognised, says business school

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
Immigrant academics play a critical role in the UK's international and national collaborations that bring social and economic benefits beyond academia, shows a new study of the public engagement activities of the UK's native-born and international academics.

Small and isolated habitat patches crucial to species survival

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
Small local patches of bushland could be playing a much bigger role in conserving biodiversity than previously thought, according to new research.

A correlation between obesity and income has only developed in the past 30 years

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
It is well known that poorer Americans are more likely to be obese or suffer from diabetes; there is a strong negative correlation between household income and both obesity and diabetes. This negative correlation, however, has only developed in the past 30 years, according to researchers in Tennessee and London. Since 1990, the rise of obesity and diabetes was fastest among the poorest US regions, says Alexander Bentley of the University of Tennessee.

Neighborhood affects the healthiness of dietary choices

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
A new study shows that living or moving to a neighborhood with a higher socioeconomic status is clearly associated with better adherence to dietary recommendations. Researchers studied the connection between neighborhoods' socioeconomic status and dietary choices from data covering over 16,000 Finnish adults.

Lethal combination: Drug cocktail turns off the juice to cancer cells

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
A widely used diabetes medication combined with an antihypertensive drug specifically inhibits tumor growth - this was discovered by researchers from the University of Basel's Biozentrum two years ago. In a follow-up study, recently published in Cell Reports, the scientists report that this drug cocktail induces cancer cell death by switching off their energy supply.

ESMO Immuno-Oncology Congress showcases new technologies set to improve cancer treatment

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
Innovation in immuno-oncology is exploding and new technologies that are set to benefit many patients with cancer are being showcased in the highly diverse array of topics to be discussed at the ESMO Immuno-Oncology Congress, to be held 13-16 December in Geneva, Switzerland.

New light-based technology reveals how cells communicate in human disease

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
Scientists at the University of York have developed a new technique that uses light to understand how cells communicate in human disease.

Silica paradox

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
An international team of physicists and materials scientists from NUST MISIS, Bayerisches Geoinstitut (Germany), Linköping University (Sweden), and California Institute of Technology (USA) has discovered 'impossible' modifications of silica coesite-IV and coesite-V - i.e., materials that had not been supposed to exist. Their structure reveals the exception from the general rules of formation of chemical bonds in inorganic materials, which were postulated by Linus Pauling and brought him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954.

Meditation adapts the brain to respond better to feedback

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
In a new study in the Journal of Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience researchers from the University of Surrey have discovered a link between meditation and how individuals respond to feedback.

Algorithms to locate centrioles in the cell

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
Investigators from the UEx have developed a methodology with new algorithms to analyse the location of the centriole in a model cell. Thanks to this technology, they have been able to discover how the actin cytoskeleton, is involved in the polarised placement of centrioles in Drosophila, just as happens in vertebrates. However, the planar cell polarity-dependent factors which affect the location of the centriole in humans and in vertebrates are not found in Drosophila

Attention training improves intelligence and functioning of children's brain

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
the study shows that the beneficial effects of training in the brain and intelligence are greater when an educator implement a coaching strategy design in order to help the child to understand their training process

Researchers use computer model to predict prostate cancer progression

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
An international team of cancer researchers from Denmark and Germany have used cancer patient data to develop a computer model that can predict the course of disease for prostate cancer. The model is currently being implemented at a prostate cancer clinic in Germany. The researchers have also found the enzyme that appears to trigger some of the first mutations in prostate cancer.

Green production of chemicals for industry

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
Industry consumes large quantities of crude oil to produce basic substances for drugs, cosmetics, plastics, or food. However, these processes consume a lot of energy and produce waste. Biological processes with enzymes are far more sustainable. The protein molecules can catalyze various chemical reactions without auxiliary materials or solvents being required. But they are expensive and, hence, have been economically unattractive so far. Researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have now developed a new biomaterial that considerably facilitates the use of enzymes.

Brain activity shows development of visual sensitivity in autism

EurekAlert! - Lun, 12/10/2018 - 23:00
Research investigating how the brain responds to visual patterns in people with autism has shown that sensory responses change between childhood and adulthood.

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