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Loss of airway blood vessels is associated with risk of death in smokers without COPD

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
In a new study, CT-measured vascular pruning -- the diminution of distal pulmonary blood vessels (vessels on the outer edges of the lungs) -- was associated with increased risk of death in smokers without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The study was presented at the 2017 American Thoracic Society International Conference.

Parents' reasons for not vaccinating children influence public attitudes toward them

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
Mothers are viewed negatively if their child hasn't been vaccinated, no matter the reason. But mothers who outright refuse to vaccinate their children are viewed in a harsher light compared to those who delay vaccines because of safety concerns or who aren't up to date due to time constraints.

Rare tooth find reveals horned dinosaurs in eastern North America

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
A chance discovery in Mississippi provides the first evidence of an animal closely related to Triceratops in eastern North America. The fossil, a tooth from rocks between 68 and 66 million years old, shows that two halves of the continent previously thought to be separated by seaway were probably connected before the end of the Age of Dinosaurs.

Follow-up imaging is less when radiologists read ED ultrasounds

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
According to a study presented at the American College of Radiology annual meeting, the use of follow-up imaging is significantly less when initial emergency department (ED) ultrasound examinations are interpreted by a radiologist than a nonradiologist.

Why our brain cells may prevent us burning fat when we're dieting

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
A study carried out in mice may help explain why dieting can be an inefficient way to lose weight: key brain cells act as a trigger to prevent us burning calories when food is scarce.

A new tool for discovering nanoporous materials

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
EPFL scientists have developed a mathematical 'face-recognition' method for identifying and discovering nanoporous materials based on their pore size.

Weather patterns' influence on frost timing

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
The frost-free season in North America is approximately 10 days longer now than it was a century ago. In a new study, published today in Nature Communications, researchers from the University of Utah and the US Geological Survey parse the factors contributing to the timing of frost in the United States. Atmospheric circulation patterns, they found, were the dominant influence on frost timing, although the trend of globally warming temperatures played a part as well.

Wolves need space to roam to control expanding coyote populations

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
Wolves and other top predators need large ranges to be able to control smaller predators whose populations have expanded, according to a study appearing May 23 in Nature Communications. The results were similar across three continents, showing that as top predators' ranges were cut back and fragmented, they were no longer able to control smaller predators.

Despite partisanship surrounding voter ID, most voters don't believe it suppresses turnout

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
Most Americans -- even average Democrats -- do not accept the argument that voter identification laws can suppress voter turnout, according to a new study that includes a University of Kansas professor.

Strategic brain training positively affects neural connectivity for individuals with TBI

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
A study from the Center for BrainHealth at The University of Texas at Dallas shows that a specific instructor-led brain training protocol can stimulate structural changes in the brain and neural connections even years after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). The findings, published in Brain and Behavior, further suggest that changes in cortical thickness and neural network connectivity may prove an effective way to quantitatively measure treatment efficacy, an ability that has not previously existed.

Off-the-shelf, power-generating clothes are almost here

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
A lightweight, comfortable jacket that can generate the power to light up a jogger at night may sound futuristic, but materials scientist Trisha Andrew at UMass Amherst could make one today. In a new paper this month, she and colleagues outline a way to apply breathable, pliable, metal-free electrodes to fabric and off-the-shelf clothing so it feels good to the touch and also transports enough electricity to power small electronics.

New study examines child death rates in motor vehicle crashes by state

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
New research finds that an estimated 1,100 pediatric deaths could be averted over five years with an absolute 10 percent improvement in child restraint use.

Food is not just the sum of its nutrients

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
The nutritional value of a food should be evaluated on the basis of the foodstuff as a whole, and not as an effect of the individual nutrients. This is the conclusion of an international expert panel of epidemiologists, physicians, food and nutrition scientists and brought together by the University of Copenhagen and University of Reading. Their conclusion reshapes our understanding of the importance of nutrients and their interaction.

Flight delay? Lost luggage? Don't blame airline mergers, Indiana University research shows

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
An analysis of 15 years of US Department of Transportation statistics found that airline consolidation has had little negative impact on on-time performance.

Dentists in good compliance with American Heart Association guidelines, according to Rochester epidemiology project

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
In the first study examining dental records in the Rochester Epidemiology Project, results show that dentists and oral surgeons are in good compliance with guidelines issued by the American Heart Association (AHA) in 2007, describing prophylactic antibiotic use prior to invasive dental procedures.

Family history of Alzheimer's may alter metabolic gene that increases risk for disease

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
A new Iowa State University study may have identified the link that explains years of conflicting research over a mitochondrial gene and the risk for Alzheimer's disease. Researchers found a dramatic difference in the gene's impact on memory, general cognitive function and risk based on a family history of Alzheimer's disease and the length of a specific section of the gene.

US child welfare system could save $12 billion, improve outcomes

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
Improving prevention and treatment services are realistic reforms to the child welfare system that could improve long-term outcomes for children while cutting $12 billion in costs. RAND developed a quantitative model to reach its recommendations. The model is the first-ever attempt to integrate risk of maltreatment, detection, paths through the system and consequences to predict the impact of policy changes.

Just one alcoholic drink a day increases breast cancer risk, exercise lowers risk

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
A new report that analyzed the global scientific research on how diet, weight and exercise affect breast cancer risk finds there are steps women can take to lower their risk. The report finds that daily alcohol consumption and adult weight gain increase risk; physical activity and breastfeeding lower risk. The report also reveals, for the first time, that vigorous exercise decreases the risk of both pre- and post-menopausal breast cancers.

Pediatricians can play a pivotal role in reducing pediatric firearm-related injuries

Lun, 05/22/2017 - 22:00
A review led by Children's National Health System researchers published May 23, 2017 in Hospital Pediatrics indicates that while firearms are present in 18 percent to 64 percent of US homes, almost 40 percent of parents erroneously believe that their children are unaware where weapons are stored, and 22 percent of parents wrongly think that their children have never handled household firearms.

Total synthesis of flueggenine C via an accelerated intermolecular Rauhut-Currier reaction

Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
The first total synthesis of dimeric securinega alkaloid (-)-flueggenine C was completed via an accelerated intermolecular Rauhut-Currier (RC) reaction. The research team led by Professor Sunkyu Han in the Department of Chemistry succeeded in synthesizing the natural product by reinventing the conventional RC reaction.