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Elucidating cuttlefish camouflage

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Computational image analysis of behaving cuttlefish reveals principles of control and development of a biological invisibility cloak.

Extremely small magnetic nanostructures with invisibility cloak imaged

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
In novel concepts of magnetic data storage, it is intended to send small magnetic bits back and forth in a chip structure, store them densely packed and read them out later. The magnetic stray field generates problems when trying to generate particularly tiny bits. Now, researchers were able to put an 'invisibility cloak' over the magnetic structures. In this fashion, the magnetic stray field can be reduced in a fashion allowing for small yet mobile bits.

Canadian-led international study shows huge costs of delayed access to stroke care

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
HOT TOPIC: Canadian study finds that delays of just an hour result in poorer outcomes for patients and greatly increased healthcare costsHOT TOPIC: Young people, especially women, are less likely to take an ambulance to the hospital after stroke, causing harmful delays, Canadian researchers findHOT TOPIC: Canadian study looks at impact of aerobic exercise on cognitive improvement of stroke patients

Women more prone to selected oesophagogastric cancer chemotherapy side-effects

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Men and women may need to be treated differently -- at least when it comes to some types of cancer. In an analysis to be presented at the ESMO 2018 Congress in Munich, data was pooled from four UK randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of first line chemotherapy in oesophagogastric (OG) cancer, finding significant differences in a number of important side-effects experienced by male and female patients.

Infection biology: Staying a step ahead of the game

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Trypanosoma brucei, which causes sleeping sickness, evades the immune system by repeatedly altering the structure of its surface coat. Sequencing of its genome and studies of its 3D genome architecture have now revealed crucial molecular aspects of this strategy.

Consumers choose smartphones mostly because of their appearance

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
The more attractive the image and design of the telephone, the stronger the emotional relationship that consumers are going to have with the product, which is a clear influence on their purchasing decision. After analysing the data collected, the experts indicated that technical characteristics and functionality are the next factors to influence the purchase of smartphones.

People who commute through natural environments daily report better mental health

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
People who commute through natural environments report better mental health. This is the main conclusion of a research based on questionnaires answered by nearly 3,600 participants from four European cities and published in Environment International.

Advanced sequencing technology provides new insights into human mitochondrial diseases

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Researchers have for the first time been able to investigate the abundance and methyl modifications of all mitochondrial tRNAs in patients suffering from one of the most common inherited mitochondrial tRNA mutations. The analysis pipeline revealed quantitative changes that had dramatic effects on protein synthesis within mitochondria.

Accurate evaluation of chondral injuries by near infrared spectroscopy

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
An arthroscopic near infrared spectroscopic probe for evaluation of articular cartilage and subchondral bone structure and composition was developed as part of a Ph.D. thesis at the University of Eastern Finland. The probe enables enhanced detection of cartilage injuries, as well as evaluation of the integrity of the surrounding tissue. The availability of comprehensive information on the health of joint tissues could substantially enhance the treatment outcome of arthroscopic intervention.

Muscle mass should be a new vital sign, research shows

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Adults go to the doctor roughly three times a year.1 During their visit, vitals are taken such as blood pressure, pulse, and weight, but are these measurements really showing the full picture of a person's overall health? Extensive research shows health care professionals should be considering something often overlooked - muscle mass.

Allergy research: Test predicts outcome of hay fever therapies

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Allergen-specific immunotherapy can considerably improve everyday life for allergy sufferers. It is unclear, however, what exactly happens during this treatment. A team at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and Helmholtz Zentrum München investigated the processes taking place in the body over the course of a three-year allergen-specific immunotherapy. The researchers found clues as to why the allergy immunization takes so long and how the chances of success can be determined at a very early stage.

The dual and unknown function of the immune system

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
A new study led by CNIC researcher Andrés Hidalgo and published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine shows that in addition to its defense function and the associated damage to affected tissues, the immune system also plays an important role in the day-to-day function of healthy organs. The research results show that the immune cells called neutrophils help to maintain the normal function of healthy tissues

Polluted city neighborhoods are bad news for asthmatic children

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Children with asthma who grow up in a New York City neighborhood where air pollution is prevalent need emergency medical treatment more often than asthmatics in less polluted areas. This is according to researchers from Columbia University in the US in a new study published in the Springer Nature-branded journal Pediatric Research.

Female chimpanzees know which males are most likely to kill their babies

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Researchers from the Living Primates Research Group in the University of Kent's School of Anthropology and Conservation (SAC), and the School of Psychology and Neuroscience at the University of St Andrews, examined the behaviour of female chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest, Uganda, where chimpanzees (at least in the study community) are particularly prone to committing and suffering infanticide.

One in six premenopausal early breast cancer patients do not adhere to hormonal therapy

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Nearly one in six premenopausal women being treated for early stage breast cancer do not adhere adequately to tamoxifen therapy after one year of treatment, potentially putting themselves at increased risk of recurrence and reduced survival, a French prospective study reports at ESMO 2018.

Scientific research will help to understand the origin of life in the universe

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Scientists from Samara University and several universities in the USA have proposed and experimentally confirmed new fundamental chemical mechanisms for the synthesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results of this work are presented in the article published in Oct. 8 edition of the scientific journal Nature Astronomy. The described processes make it possible to understand how complex molecules that are related to the origin of life in the universe are formed.

Scientists uncover how rare gene mutation affects brain development and memory

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Researchers from the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, have found that a rare gene mutation alters brain development in mice, impairing memory and disrupting the communication between nerve cells. They also show memory problems could be improved by transplanting a specific type of nerve cell into the brain. The findings were published today in Neuron.

ANU researchers find new disease

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Researchers at The Australian National University (ANU) have discovered a new genetic disease and a method for detecting more unexplained medical conditions.

Predictability limit for tropical cyclones over the western North Pacific

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Dr. Quanjia Zhong and Professor Ruiqiang Ding, from the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, employed the nonlinear local Lyapunov exponent (NLLE) approach to estimate the predictability limit of TCs over the whole western North Pacific (WNP) basin using observed TC best-track data.

Producing defectless metal crystals of unprecedented size

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
IBS-CMCM researchers have published in Science about a new method to convert inexpensive polycrystalline metal foils to single crystals with superior properties. It is expected that these materials will find many uses in science and technology.

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