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Impact of Amazonian hydropower is 'significantly underestimated', study finds

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
The environmental impact of hydropower generation in the Amazon may be greater than predicted, according to new University of Stirling research.

Scientists solve a magnesium mystery in rechargeable battery performance

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
A Berkeley Lab-led research team has discovered a surprising set of chemical reactions involving magnesium that degrade battery performance even before the battery can be charged up. The findings could steer the design of next-gen batteries.

Investigating the most common genetic contributor to Parkinson's disease

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
LRRK2 gene mutations are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the normal physiological role of this gene in the brain remains unclear. In a paper published in Neuron, Brigham and Women's Hospital principal investigator, Jie Shen, Ph.D., of the Department of Neurology, and her team describe an essential role of LRRK in the brain during aging that may help to shed light on the causes of PD in human patients.

One to 10 mutations are needed to drive cancer, scientists find

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
For the first time, scientists have provided unbiased estimates of the number of mutations needed for cancers to develop, in a study of more than 7,500 tumors across 29 cancer types. Researchers from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and their collaborators adapted a technique from the field of evolution to confirm that, on average, one to ten driver mutations are needed for cancer to emerge. The results are published today in Cell.

New study finds childhood cancer survivors commonly stay at jobs to keep health insurance

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
The results of a national cancer survey find a significant number of childhood cancer survivors are worried about keeping their health insurance, to the point of letting it affect their career decisions. The findings were published today in JAMA Oncology.

Changes in insurance coverage among patients with cancer under ACA

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
A new research letter published by JAMA Oncology examines changes in insurance coverage among patients with cancer under the Affordable Care Act.

A country's prevalence of visual impairment, blindness associated w level of socioeconomic develop

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
In an analysis of data for 190 countries and territories, those with higher levels of socioeconomic development had a lower prevalence of visual impairment and blindness, according to a study published by JAMA Ophthalmology.

Does rhinoplasty change perceptions of attractiveness, success, health?

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Participants in a web-based survey who viewed pictures of patients before and after rhinoplasty rated patients after surgery as more attractive, successful and overall healthier, in an article published by JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery.

Gene circuit switches on inside cancer cells, triggers immune attack

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Researchers at MIT have developed a synthetic gene circuit that triggers the body's immune system to attack cancers when it detects signs of the disease.

Discovery lights path for Alzheimer's research

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
A metallic probe invented at Rice University that lights up when it binds to a misfolded amyloid beta peptide has identified a binding site that could facilitate better drugs to treat Alzheimer's disease. When the probe is illuminated, it catalyzes oxidation of the protein in a way that might keep it from aggregating in the brains of patients.

Mathematically modeling HIV drug pharmacodynamics

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Complete elimination of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) presents a challenge due to latent viral reservoirs within the body that can help re-establish infection. In a paper publishing this week in the SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, researchers propose a mathematical model that investigates the effects of drug parameters and dosing schedules on HIV latent reservoirs and viral load dynamics.

Tracing cell death pathway points to drug targets for brain damage, kidney injury, asthma

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
University of Pittsburgh scientists are unlocking the complexities of a recently discovered cell death process that plays a key role in health and disease, and new findings link their discovery to asthma, kidney injury and brain trauma. The results, reported today in the journal Cell, are the early steps toward drug development that could transform emergency and critical care treatment.

Brain takes seconds to switch modes during tasks

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
The brain rapidly switches between operational modes in response to tasks and what is replayed can predict how well a task will be completed, according to a new UCL study in rats.

Study: Sickle cell anemia treatment does not increase malaria risk in Africa

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
The drug hydroxyurea does not appear to increase the risk of malaria infection in patients with sickle cell anemia who live in malaria-endemic regions, according to a study published online today in Blood, the Journal of the American Society of Hematology (ASH).

H7N9 influenza is both lethal and transmissible in animal model for flu

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
In 2013, an influenza virus began circulating among poultry in China. It caused several waves of human infection and as of late July 2017, nearly 1,600 people had tested positive for avian H7N9. Nearly 40 percent of those infected had died. In 2017, Yoshihiro Kawaoka of the University of Wisconsin-Madison received a sample of H7N9 virus isolated from a patient in China who had died of the flu. He and his research team subsequently began work to characterize and understand it.

Last unknown structure of HIV-1 solved, another step in efforts to disarm the AIDS virus

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
UAB researchers have solved the last unknown protein structure of HIV-1, the retrovirus that can cause AIDS. Knowledge of this structure, called the cytoplasmic tail of gp41 protein, will further explain how the virus infects human cells and how progeny viruses are assembled and released from infected cells. The cytoplasmic tail appears to play a key role in virus assembly to help incorporate the envelope spike structures into the surface of viral particles.

Gene editing in the brain gets a major upgrade

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Genome editing technologies have revolutionized biomedical science, providing an easy way to modify genes. However, the technique allowing scientists to carryout the most precise edits, doesn't work in cells that are no longer dividing - which includes most neurons in the brain. Researchers at Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience have developed a new tool called vSLENDR that, for the first time, allows precise genome editing in mature neurons, opening up new possibilities in neuroscience research.

Gut bacteria from wild mice boost health in lab mice

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
Laboratory mice that are given the gut bacteria of wild mice can survive a deadly flu virus infection and fight colorectal cancer dramatically better than laboratory mice with their own gut bacteria, researchers report Oct. 19 in the journal Cell.

Penn researchers drill down into gene behind frontotemporal lobar degeneration

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
a new study published online this week in the American Journal of Human Genetics from Penn researchers helps answer that question by uncovering the mechanisms of the genetic mutations, or variants, associated with the gene.

Researchers are tracking pandemic potential of H7N9 bird flu in China

Mié, 10/18/2017 - 22:00
As of Oct. 5, a total of 1,562 laboratory-confirmed cases of H7N9 avian flu virus have been reported to the World Health Organization, with more people getting infected each year. In a study published in the journal Cell Host & Microbe, researchers found that H7N9 viruses replicated efficiently in human airway cells and the lungs of animal models, spread among ferrets via respiratory droplets, and were minimally responsive to commonly used antiviral drugs.

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