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Combating wear and tear

Mar, 03/21/2017 - 22:00
A team of researchers led by University of Utah bioengineering professors has discovered that damage to collagen, the main building block of all human tissue, can occur much earlier at a molecular level from too much physical stress. This could be especially helpful for some who want to know earlier if they are developing diseases such as arthritis or for athletes who want to know if repeated stress on their bodies is taking a toll.

How birthplace and education influence marriage choices in China

Mar, 03/21/2017 - 22:00
Many people choose their spouse based on shared values and interests. But in China, another important, relatively unknown factor plays a role: hukou, and it may be contributing to growing socioeconomic disparity in the country's largest city, according to a new UBC study.

The social costs of smell loss in older women

Mar, 03/21/2017 - 22:00
A new study of older US adults conducted by researchers from the Monell Center and collaborating institutions reports that a woman's social life is associated with how well her sense of smell functions. The study found that older women who do less well on a smell identification task also tend to have fewer social connections.

Rare-earths become water-repellent only as they age

Mar, 03/21/2017 - 22:00
Surfaces that have been coated with rare earth oxides develop water-repelling properties only after contact with air. Even at room temperature, chemical reactions begin with hydrocarbons in the air. In the journal Scientific Reports, researchers from the University of Basel, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute and the Paul Scherrer Institute report that it is these reactions that are responsible for the hydrophobic effect.

Google Street View cars are eyes on the ground for urban methane leaks

Mar, 03/21/2017 - 22:00
A set of Google Street View mapping cars, specially equipped with cutting-edge methane analyzers, are allowing Colorado State University researchers to 'see' invisible methane leaks from natural gas lines beneath our streets. The technical and computational challenges of measuring methane, and the complex methodologies used to collect, analyze and publicize the data, are detailed in a new paper in the journal Environmental Science and Technology.

Scientists partner with Google Earth Outreach to analyze methane leaks in US cities

Mar, 03/21/2017 - 22:00
Finding and fixing natural gas leaks is a persistent challenge for utilities across the country. In addition to the serious safety considerations, leaking natural gas -- which is mostly methane -- also contributes the potent greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. To help address this problem, scientists teamed up with Google Earth Outreach to outfit Street View cars with methane analyzers to map leaks. They report their findings in the ACS journal Environmental Science & Technology.

A new species of hard coral from the World Heritage-listed Lord Howe Island, Australia

Mar, 03/21/2017 - 22:00
The discovery of a new species of hard coral, found on Lord Howe Island, suggests that the fauna of this isolated location in the Tasman Sea off south eastern Australia is even more distinct than previously recognised. Even though the World Heritage-listed site has been long known for its biodiversity, the new species, recently described in the open access journal ZooKeys, is the first coral known to live exclusively in the region.

People's romantic choices share characteristics, but for different reasons

Mar, 03/21/2017 - 22:00
The people one dates share many similarities -- both physically and personality-wise -- a new University of California study has found.

How physical activity and sedentary time affect adolescents' bones

Mar, 03/21/2017 - 22:00
A large prospective study in 309 adolescent boys and girls underscores the importance of physical activity for developing bone strength during growth. Adolescents who participated in moderate to intense physical activity during growth spurt years exhibited greater bone mass in areas that contribute to superior bone strength. The study also found mixed effects of sedentary time.

How children's temperament and environment shape their problem-solving abilities

Mar, 03/21/2017 - 22:00
A new study indicates that early experiences of environmental harshness, in combination with a child's temperament, can influence later problem-solving abilities.

Significant increase in number of women tested for BRCA gene, but many high-risk patients still missing out

Mar, 03/21/2017 - 22:00
Previously, mainly women with a history of cancer were referred for genetic testing, but as awareness has grown, more low-risk women are undergoing BRCA testing. A new study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine found that the proportion of women without a history of cancer who underwent BRCA testing rose sharply from 24.3% in 2004 to 61.5% in 2014.

Biologic treatments for inflammatory bowel disease help heal the intestine

Mar, 03/21/2017 - 22:00
Although anti-inflammatory treatments are quite effective at reducing symptoms in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the mucosal lining of the intestine often remains ulcerated, and many patients still ultimately require surgery. Because of this, the goal of treatment is shifting towards mucosal healing rather than just symptom relief.

Study reveals surprises concerning COPD and smoking

Mar, 03/21/2017 - 22:00
A new study challenges the widely accepted but oversimplified description of airway inflammation in smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Does boosting 'good' cholesterol really improve your health?

Mar, 03/21/2017 - 22:00
A new review addresses the mysteries behind 'good' HDL cholesterol and why boosting its levels does not necessarily provide protection from cardiovascular risk for patients. It appears that augmenting the function of HDL cholesterol, rather than its concentration, is key.

Some blood thinners may increase heart attack risk

Mar, 03/21/2017 - 22:00
A new study has examined whether different blood thinning medications prescribed to prevent strokes in patients with atrial fibrillation might increase the risk of heart attacks.

Many adults have insufficient knowledge about heart failure

Mar, 03/21/2017 - 22:00
In the largest German survey on heart failure to date, investigators found that the overall awareness of heart failure has not increased over the past decade and is not at a satisfactory level.

Loss of smell linked to increased risk of early death

Mar, 03/21/2017 - 22:00
In a study of adults aged 40 to 90 years who were followed for 10 years, poor smell was linked with an increased risk of dying.

How reliable are traditional wildlife surveys?

Mar, 03/21/2017 - 22:00
To effectively manage a wildlife species, one of the most basic things you need to know is how many of them are out there. However, it's almost never feasible to count every single individual -- so how do the results of wildlife surveys compare to true population size? A new study in The Condor: Ornithological Applications tests this using the results of more than thirty years of surveys of the Rocky Mountain population of sandhill cranes.

Endangered ibises benefit from joining egret flocks

Mar, 03/21/2017 - 22:00
Birds benefit from flocking together -- even when they're not of a feather. According to a new study in The Auk: Ornithological Advances, China's endangered crested ibises benefit from joining forces with other, more visually-oriented bird species while searching for food.

Non-invasive prostate cancer diagnosing, monitoring

Lun, 03/20/2017 - 22:00
Technology being developed at Washington State University provides a non-invasive approach for diagnosing prostate cancer and tracking the disease's progression. It could enable doctors to determine how cancer patients are responding to different treatments without needing to perform invasive biopsies.