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Patients with healthcare-associated infections suffer social, emotional pain

Mié, 08/15/2018 - 22:00
The consequences of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) reach well beyond patients' physical health, souring social relationships, and leading some healthcare providers (HCP) to distance themselves from affected patients, according to a qualitative, systematic review published in the American Journal of Infection Control (AJIC), the journal of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC).

New aid to help identify and manage patients with diabetes at increased risk of fracture

Mié, 08/15/2018 - 22:00
The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) Bone & Diabetes Working Group has published 'Diagnosis and management of bone fragility in diabetes: an emerging challenge' an expert review that summarizes key research, highlights clinical issues, and provides a helpful 'decision-tree' style algorithm for the identification and management of diabetic patients at increased fracture risk.

A unique combination of catalysts opens doors to making useful compounds

Mié, 08/15/2018 - 22:00
All organisms rely on chemical reactions in order to make various natural products. Chemical reactions can be caused by a number of catalysts, such as enzymatic or chemical catalysts. Researchers have developed a new method that aids in the process of making valuable compounds by using a new catalytic method that combines enzymatic catalysts with photocatalysts.

Female mosquitoes get choosy quickly to offset invasions

Mié, 08/15/2018 - 22:00
Certain female mosquitoes quickly evolve more selective mating behavior when faced with existential threats from other invasive mosquito species, with concurrent changes to certain genetic regions, according to new research from North Carolina State University.

Oil palm: few areas in Africa reconcile high yields and primate protection

Mié, 08/15/2018 - 22:00
An international research team, including scientists from CIRAD and the European Commission Joint Research Centre, has assessed the potential impact on primates of the expansion of oil palm cultivation in Africa. The authors of the study combined information on land suitability for oil palm cultivation with primate distribution, diversity and vulnerability. They concluded that it will be very difficult to reconcile oil palm development in Africa with biodiversity conservation. These results were published today in the American journal PNAS.

Blood test may identify gestational diabetes risk in first trimester, NIH study indicates

Mié, 08/15/2018 - 22:00
A blood test conducted as early as the 10th week of pregnancy may help identify women at risk for gestational diabetes, a pregnancy-related condition that poses potentially serious health risks for mothers and infants, according to researchers at the National Institutes of Health and other institutions.

Scientists create antilaser for ultracold atoms condensate

Mié, 08/15/2018 - 22:00
An international team of scientists developed the world's first antilaser for nonlinear Bose-Einstein condensate of ultracold atoms. For the first time, scientists demonstrated that it is possible to absorb the selected signal completely, even though the nonlinear system makes it difficult to predict the waves behaviour. The results can be used to manipulate superfluid flows, create atomic lasers, and also study nonlinear optical systems. The study was published in Science Advances.

Volcano eruptions at different latitudes impact sea surface temperature differently

Mié, 08/15/2018 - 22:00
Scientists investigate the different impacts of northern, tropical and southern volcanic eruptions on the tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature(SST). The results are useful for the mitigation and adaptation of climate change after volcanic eruptions and the associated socioeconomic impacts, and can also provide insight for understanding future SST changes induced by large volcanic eruptions.

Brain response study upends thinking about why practice speeds up motor reaction times

Mié, 08/15/2018 - 22:00
Researchers in the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at Johns Hopkins Medicine report that a computerized study of 36 healthy adult volunteers asked to repeat the same movement over and over became significantly faster when asked to repeat that movement on demand--a result that occurred not because they anticipated the movement, but because of an as yet unknown mechanism that prepared their brains to replicate the same action.

Using mushrooms as a prebiotic may help improve glucose regulation

Mié, 08/15/2018 - 22:00
Eating white button mushrooms can create subtle shifts in the microbial community in the gut, which could improve the regulation of glucose in the liver, according to a team of researchers. They also suggest that better understanding this connection between mushrooms and gut microbes in mice could one day pave the way for new diabetes treatments and prevention strategies for people.

Expecting to learn: Language acquisition in toddlers improved by predictable situations

Mié, 08/15/2018 - 22:00
Two year-old children were taught novel words in predictable and unpredictable situations. Children learned words significantly better in predictable situations.

Newly identified role for inhibition in cerebellar plasticity and behavior

Mié, 08/15/2018 - 22:00
Researchers at MPFI have discovered part of the answer to this longstanding question: How do our brains turn the motor errors we make into meaningful and reliable learning? Uncovering a surprising new role for inhibition in the cerebellum, regulating how and when motor learning is acquired in the cerebellum, Dr. Christie's team has broadened the current understanding of neural computation and provided fundamental insights into the mechanisms and principles underlying motor learning.

Cells agree: What doesn't kill you makes you stronger

Mié, 08/15/2018 - 22:00
Brief exposures to stressors can be beneficial by prompting cells to trigger sustained production of antioxidants, molecules that help get rid of toxic cellular buildup related to normal metabolism -- findings with potential relevance for age-related diseases like cancer, Alzheimer's and heart disease.

YouTube is source of misinformation on plastic surgery, Rutgers study finds

Mié, 08/15/2018 - 22:00
In the first study to evaluate YouTube videos on facial plastic surgery procedures, Rutgers University researchers found that most are misleading marketing campaigns posted by non-qualified medical professionals.

Ancient beetle discovery gives clue to gymnosperm pollination

Mié, 08/15/2018 - 22:00
Scientists from the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology reported a new mid-Cretaceous (99-million-year-old) boganiid beetle with specialized pollen feeding adaptations. This discovery suggests an ancient origin for beetle pollination of cycads long before the rise of flowering plants.

Quality of YouTube videos for facial plastics information

Mié, 08/15/2018 - 22:00
YouTube videos are a popular resource for facial plastics information. However, a new research letter that evaluated the quality of some of those videos suggests they can present biased information, offer an unbalanced assessment of risks and benefits, and be unclear about the qualifications of the practitioners featured.

How common among US adults is the perception of a phantom odor?

Mié, 08/15/2018 - 22:00
The perception of phantom odors is a condition in which individuals think they smell odors that don't actually exist. Anecdotal reports suggest it can be a debilitating condition, with the odors often described as foul, rotten or chemical. A new observational study estimates 6.5 percent of US adults 40 and older perceive phantom smells. The study included about 7,400 adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

That stinks! 1 American in 15 smells odors that aren't there

Mié, 08/15/2018 - 22:00
A new study finds that one in 15 Americans (or 6.5 percent) over the age of 40 experiences phantom odors. The study, published in JAMA Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, is the first in the US to use nationally representative data to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for phantom odor perception. The study could inform future research aiming to unlock the mysteries of phantom odors.

'Traffic wardens' of cells can be counterproductive

Mié, 08/15/2018 - 22:00
A research team from the Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência and the Centre for Biomedical Research/University of Algarve, found that a mechanism of cell division control can be associated with an increase of errors in chromosomes distribution. This process can influence the development of diseases, such as cancer, infertility and some congenital disorders. The study will be published on Aug. 16 in the Current Biology journal.

How people use, and lose, preexisting biases to make decisions

Mié, 08/15/2018 - 22:00
From love and politics to health and finances, humans can sometimes make decisions that appear irrational, or dictated by an existing bias or belief. But a new study from Columbia University neuroscientists uncovers a surprisingly rational feature of the human brain: a previously held bias can be set aside so that the brain can apply logical, mathematical reasoning to the decision at hand.

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