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Coalition seeks to increase transparency on life science career prospects

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
Nine US research universities and a major cancer institute today announced plans to give would-be life scientists clear, standardized data on graduate school admissions, education and training opportunities, and career prospects.

One in 5 patients report discrimination in health care

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
The analysis by researchers at UC San Francisco, Stanford University, and UC Berkeley found that discrimination reported by black patients declined significantly over the six-year study period, reducing the difference between blacks and whites from 8.2 percent to 2.5 percent. But by far, racial discrimination remained the most common reason cited by blacks for receiving poor service or treatment from doctors and hospitals.

UMass Amherst, Peking University scientists advance knowledge of plant reproduction

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
Two groups of plant molecular biologists, at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and Peking University, have long studied how pollen tubes and pistils, the male and female parts of flowers, communicate to achieve fertilization in plants. Today they report in a Science early release paper that they have identified a pair of receptors essential to these communications as well as molecules that modulate the receptors' activity.

New catalyst meets challenge of cleaning exhaust from modern engines

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
Researchers have created a catalyst capable of reducing pollutants at the lower temperatures expected in advanced engines.

'Knot' your average nanostructure: Single-stranded molecules that fold into big shapes

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
Helping to make creation of nano-sized structures more user-friendly, scientists have designed single-stranded DNA and RNA (ssDNA and ssRNA) that can fold into desired shapes on command, and at an unprecedented scale.

Finding a less poopy solution for fecal transplant regulation

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
As fecal matter transplants (FMTs) continue to be more widely adopted, it is critical to have an appropriate regulatory framework in place, authors of this Policy Forum emphasize.

Two groups that want to save elephants need to find common ground

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
In this Perspective, Duan Biggs et al. discuss ways in which two groups of people who want to help protect elephants from poaching -- but disagree on the means -- can achieve their common goal.

A complex genetic network controls whether fruit flies need to sleep in

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
Some humans just need more sleep than others, and it turns out that the same is true in fruit flies. In a new study, published Dec. 14, 2017, in PLOS Genetics, Susan Harbison of the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (part of the National Institutes of Health) in Bethesda, Md., and colleagues, identified numerous genetic variations in wild fruit flies that can contribute to unusually long or short sleep times.

To sleep or not: Researchers explore complex genetic network behind sleep duration

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
Scientists have identified differences in a group of genes they say might help explain why some people need a lot more sleep -- and others less -- than most. The study, conducted using fruit fly populations bred to model natural variations in human sleep patterns, provides new clues to how genes for sleep duration are linked to a wide variety of biological processes.

Liquid biopsy results differed substantially between 2 providers

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
Two Johns Hopkins prostate cancer researchers found significant disparities when they submitted identical patient samples to two different commercial liquid biopsy providers. Liquid biopsy is a new and noninvasive alternative to tumor tissue sequencing, and it is intended to specifically detect and sequence tumor DNA circulating in patients' blood. The results are used to help guide doctors to tailor the best treatment for patients at each point of their disease.

Genetics may play role in chronic pain after surgery

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
Genetics may play a role in determining whether patients experience chronic pain after surgery, suggests a study published today in the Online First edition of Anesthesiology, the peer-reviewed medical journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA). Aside from genetic factors, the study also found patients younger than 65 years old, males and those with a prior history of chronic pain were at increased risk.

Clearing the air

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
A greater understanding of the dynamics of chemical reactions is leading to better models of atmospheric chemistry. Through this work, scientists are gaining insight into a key chemical able to break down some major air pollutants.

Womb natural killer cell discovery could lead to screening for miscarriage risk

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
For the first time the functions of natural killer cells in the womb have been identified. Researchers at the University of Warwick and University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire (UHCW) NHS Trust have discovered the role that they play in preparing the womb for pregnancy.

Testing the accuracy of FDA-approved and lab-developed cancer genetics tests

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
Amid the debate about how much these tests should be regulated by the FDA, one question has gone unanswered: how well do LDTs and FDA-CDs perform? A new study published this week in JAMA Oncology, which analyzed data from almost 7,000 tests, finds that the answer is: very well and very comparably.

New insight into battery charging supports development of improved electric vehicles

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
A new technique developed by researchers at Technische Universität München, Forschungszentrum Jülich, and RWTH Aachen University, published in Elsevier's Materials Today, provides a unique insight into how the charging rate of lithium ion batteries can be a factor limiting their lifetime and safety.

Dawn of a galactic collision

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
A riot of color and light dances through this peculiarly shaped galaxy, NGC 5256. Its smoke-like plumes are flung out in all directions and the bright core illuminates the chaotic regions of gas and dust swirling through the galaxy's center. Its odd structure is due to the fact that this is not one galaxy, but two -- in the process of a galactic collision.

Do bullies have more sex?

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
Adolescents who are willing to exploit others for personal gain are more likely to bully and have sex than those who score higher on a measure of honesty and humility. This is according to a study in Springer's journal Evolutionary Psychological Science which was led by Daniel Provenzano of the University of Windsor in Canada.

Scientists discover blood sample detection method for multiple sclerosis

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
Researchers identified two natural biomarker compounds present in the blood.

Children's screen-time guidelines too restrictive, according to new research

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
Digital screen use is a staple of contemporary life for adults and children, whether they are browsing on laptops and smartphones, or watching TV. Pediatricians and scientists have long expressed concerns about the impact of overusing technology on people's wellbeing. However, new Oxford University research suggests that existing guidance managing children's digital media time may not be as beneficial as first thought.

Insight into how infants learn to walk

Mié, 12/13/2017 - 23:00
Ten-week-old babies can learn from practicing walking months before they begin walking themselves. Researchers gave the infants experience at 'reflex walking' which is a primitive instinct in babies which disappears around 12 weeks of age. Results show that brain activity is associated with the perception of walking even at such a young age.

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