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Mice need a clutch to smell

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Researchers at the Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST) identify shootin 1b as a clutch molecule that couples force and adhesion for the migration of neurons to the mouse olfactory bulb. The study provides new insights on how internal forces are converted into external movement and on how mechanical interactions regulate neurodevelopment.

Biodiversity can also destabilize ecosystems

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
According to the prevailing opinion, species-rich ecosystems are more stable against environmental disruptions such as drought, hot spells or pesticides. The situation is not as simple as it seems, however, as ecologists at the University of Zurich and the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) have now discovered. Under certain environmental conditions, increased biodiversity can also lead to an ecosystem becoming more unstable.

Children with autism, developmental delays nearly 50 percent more likely to be overweight, obese

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
A new study reveals that children with developmental delays, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are up to 50 percent more likely to be overweight or obese compared with the general population.

Carbon fiber can store energy in the body of a vehicle

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
A study led by Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, has shown that carbon fibers can work as battery electrodes, storing energy directly. This opens up new opportunities for structural batteries, where the carbon fiber becomes part of the energy system. The use of this type of multifunctional material can contribute to a significant weight-reduction in the aircraft and vehicles of the future -- a key challenge for electrification.

Distinguishing fatal prostate cancer from 'manageable' cancer now possible

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Scientists at the University of York have found a way of distinguishing between fatal prostate cancer and manageable cancer, which could reduce unnecessary surgeries and radiotherapy.

Study provides insight into how nanoparticles interact with biological systems

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Personal electronic devices are a growing source of the world's electronic waste. Many of these products use nanomaterials, but little is known about how nanoparticles interact with the environment. Now a research team including Northwestern University chemists has discovered that when certain coated nanoparticles interact with living organisms it results in new properties that cause the nanoparticles to become sticky. Nanoparticles with 5-nanometer diameters form long kelp-like structures that are microns in size. The impact on cells is not known.

ASU astronomers catch red dwarf star in a superflare outburst

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Most red dwarf stars have planet families but are prone to violent outbursts, making their planets less hospitable to life.

Brain cells called astrocytes have unexpected role in brain 'plasticity'

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Researchers from the Salk Institute have shown that astrocytes -- long-overlooked supportive cells in the brain -- help to enable the brain's plasticity, a new role for astrocytes that was not previously known. The findings could point to ways to restore connections that have been lost due to aging or trauma.

Making gene therapy delivery safer and more efficient

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Viral vectors used to deliver gene therapies undergo spontaneous changes during manufacturing which affects their structure and function. As gene therapy approaches become more common for treating disease, managing consistency of the molecular makeup of the virus particles that deliver genes is a key concern in manufacturing on a larger scale.

Smallest life forms have smallest working CRISPR system

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Bacteria and Archaea have developed many types of CRISPR-Cas systems to protect themselves from viruses. A search through metagenomic databases of microbes, many of them uncultivatable, unearthed the genes of the smallest known working Cas complex, Cas14, from the genome of a DPANN Archaea, a group of microbes with the smallest known geomes. Cas14 is being incorporated into a CRISPR diagnostic called DETECTR.

Working lands play a key role in protecting biodiversity

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Diversifying working lands -- including farmland, rangeland and forests -- may be key to preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change, says a new review paper published this week in Science by biologists at the University of California, Berkeley. These changes could extend the habitat of critters like bats, but also much larger creatures like bears, elk and other wildlife, outside the boundaries of protected areas, while creating more sustainable, and potentially more productive, working lands.

Nurse-led care significantly more successful in treating gout, trial reveals

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Providing nurse-led care for people suffering with the painful, long-term condition gout could lead to an increase in the number of patients sticking to a beneficial treatment plan, a clinical trial has revealed.

Yale-led team finds missing-in-action MS genes

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
An international collaboration led by scientists at Yale has cracked a tough nut in multiple sclerosis: where are all the genes?

Media Alert: The Lancet special issue on primary health care

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
'Primary health care is in crisis... Leadership after the Astana meeting is essential to rejuvenate and revitalise all aspects of primary health care.' -- The Lancet special issue on primary health care marks 40 years since landmark Alma-Ata Declaration.

Expanding the optogenetics toolkit

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
A new molecular engineering technique has the potential to double the number of light-sensitive proteins available for studying brain circuits.

Scientists discover first high-temperature single-molecule magnet

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
A team of scientists led by Professor Richard Layfield at the University of Sussex has published breakthrough research in molecule-based magnetic information storage materials.

Treat-to-target strategy in gout management is effective

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
Gout is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis, caused by crystallization of uric acid in the joint. Rheumatologists have long recommended that patients with gout be treated with drugs to lower uric acid in their blood to prevent crystallization. Specifically, rheumatology societies around the world recommend that uric acid should be lowered to below 6mg/dL because that's below the concentration at which uric acid can crystallize. This strategy is known as 'treat-to-target.'

Breakthrough in accessing the tiny magnet within the core of a single atom

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
IBS-QNS researchers in South Korea have made a major scientific breakthrough by detecting the nuclear magnetism, or 'nuclear spin' of a single atom. In an international collaboration with IBM Research, the University of Oxford and the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, the scientists used advanced and novel techniques to measure the nuclear spin of individual atoms on surfaces for the first time.

Fentanyl test strips prove useful in preventing overdoses

Mié, 10/17/2018 - 22:00
A Brown University study found that many young adults who tried fentanyl test strips reduced overdose risk by using less, going slower or using with someone else present.

Adolescent THC exposure alters neurons/gene networks associated with psychosis risk

Mar, 10/16/2018 - 22:00
Adolescent THC exposure reduces the branching of prefrontal cortical neurons and the number of spines, which are critical for cellular communication. This adolescent exposure is also associated with a reorganization of the gene expression of specific genes that are predominantly related to neuron development, synaptic plasticity and chromatin organization (epigenetic mechanisms).