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Genes responsible for severe congenital heart disease identified by Pitt researcher

Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Genes responsible for hypoplastic left heart syndrome identified using mouse models.

NASA lab's life-saving work

Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Some NASA missions fundamentally change the world of science or help win Nobel prizes, but only one saves thousands of lives worldwide every year.

3.3 million-year-old fossil reveals the antiquity of the human spine

Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
An international research team has found a 3.3 million Australopithecus afarensis fossilized skeleton, possessing the most complete spinal column of any early fossil human relative. The vertebral bones, neck and rib cage are mainly intact. This new research, published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science demonstrates that portions of the human skeletal structure were established millions of years earlier than previously thought.

ATS 2017: New COPD action plan outlines strategies for improved care

Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
A Michigan Medicine researcher is a part of the National Institutes of Health's National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute group that recently created a new COPD National Action Plan. Released at the American Thoracic Society's International Conference in Washington, D.C., it outlines key goals, including raising public awareness of COPD, advancing research, improving patient care and health delivery, and developing management strategies for patients.

The Optical Society commemorates the rich tradition and history of Optics Letters

Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
First launched in 1977 as as means to quickly disseminate the latest in optics research and provide the optics and photonics community with a true Letters-style publication, Optics Letters has, over the course of its long history, published influential papers in nonlinear optics, ultrafast spectroscopy, fiber optics, optical communication, and biomedical optics among other areas. This year the Journal celebrates its 40th anniversary and The Optical Society (OSA) has launched a special website to highlight this milestone.

RIT team creates high-speed internet lane for emergency situations

Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Rochester Institute of Technology are developing a faster and more reliable way to send and receive large amounts of data through the internet. By a creating a new network protocol, called Multi Node Label Routing protocol, researchers are essentially developing a new high-speed lane of online traffic, specifically for emergency information.

Research suggests eating beans instead of beef would sharply reduce greenhouse gasses

Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
If Americans would eat beans instead of beef, the United States would immediately realize approximately 50 to 75 percent of its GHG reduction targets for the year 2020.

Joint UTSA-SwRI study shows how radioactive decay could support extraterrestrial life

Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
In the icy bodies around our solar system, radiation emitted from rocky cores could break up water molecules and support hydrogen-eating microbes. To address this cosmic possibility, a University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) team modeled a natural water-cracking process called radiolysis. They then applied the model to several worlds with known or suspected interior oceans, including Saturn's moon Enceladus, Jupiter's moon Europa, Pluto and its moon Charon, as well as the dwarf planet Ceres.

Rethinking role of viruses in coral reef ecosystems

Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Viruses are thought to frequently kill their host bacteria, especially at high microbial density. A state called lysogeny, in which viruses lie dormant but don't kill their hosts, has been thought to be relatively rare , mostly occurring at low bacterial concentrations. A new study suggests lysogeny might be much more common than previously believed. These findings could lead to a better understanding of degraded coral reef ecosystems and how to preserve them.

Extreme preterm infant death or disease may be predicted by biomarker

Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Tests of cells collected from the umbilical cord blood vessel walls at birth can predict death or poor pulmonary outcomes in extremely preterm infants, say researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Taking a closer look at genetic switches in cancer

Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Caltech biochemists have uncovered details of a protein that controls blood cell production in an aggressive form of leukemia.

Preterm birth linked to higher risk of heart failure

Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Babies born preterm run a higher risk of heart failure during childhood and adolescence than those born at full term, researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden report. The registry-based study is published in The Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC).

Experimental therapy for immune diseases hits Achilles heel of activated T cells

Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Immune diseases like multiple sclerosis and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis unleash destructive waves of inflammation on the body, causing death or a lifetime of illness and physical impairment. With safe and effective treatments in short supply, scientists report in PNAS Early Edition discovery of an experimental treatment that targets an Achilles heel of activated immune cells -- killing them off and stopping autoimmune damage.

Biofilm discovery suggests new way to prevent dangerous infections

Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
By some estimates, more than 1 million people contract infections from medical devices in US hospitals each year, many of which are due to biofilms. A new study suggests a possible new way to prevent such biofilms from forming, which would sharply reduce incidents of related hospital-borne infection.

People perceive attractive scientists as more interesting but less able, studies show

Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
A new study published today in Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) from researchers at the University of Cambridge and the University of Essex suggests that when it comes to judging scientists, we are more likely to find an attractive scientist interesting, but more likely to consider their less attractive colleagues to be better scientists.

Intestinal fungi worsen alcoholic liver disease

Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Liver cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of mortality worldwide and approximately half of those deaths are due to alcohol abuse. Yet apart from alcohol abstinence, there are no specific treatments to reduce the severity of alcohol-associated liver disease. Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine and J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) have linked intestinal fungi to increased risk of death for patients with alcohol-related liver disease.

Himalayan powerhouses: How Sherpas have evolved superhuman energy efficiency

Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Sherpas have evolved to become superhuman mountain climbers, extremely efficient at producing the energy to power their bodies even when oxygen is scarce, suggests new research published today in the Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

Protective responses appear weaker in neural stem cells from Huntington disease patients

Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
A multi-institutional team based at Massachusetts General Hospital has discovered how a potential treatment strategy for Huntington disease (HD) produces its effects, verified its action in human cells and identified a previously unknown deficit in neural stem cells from patients with HD.

Predictive models may help determine which patients benefit from ICDs

Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
Two predictive models may help cardiologists decide which patients would most benefit from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), suggests a new study published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. According to the researchers, confirming the findings in a larger, randomized trial could lead to new national guidelines for choosing patients who are good candidates for ICD implantation.

The right thing to do: Why do we follow unspoken group rules?

Dom, 05/21/2017 - 22:00
How you dress, talk, eat and even what you allow yourself to feel -- these often unspoken rules of a group are social norms, and many are internalized to such a degree that you probably don't even notice them. Following norms, however, can sometimes be costly for individuals if norms require sacrifice for the good of the group. How and why did humans evolve to follow such norms in the first place?

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