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The laws of attraction: Pheromones don't lie, fruit fly research suggests

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
For the first time, scientists have shown that a female fruit fly's pheromone signals can actually tell males how much energy her body has invested in egg production versus in storing away energy for her own survival. And it's a signal that she can't change in order to make herself more attractive.

Cholesterol crystals are sure sign a heart attack may loom

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
A new Michigan State University study on 240 emergency room patients shows just how much of a role a person's cholesterol plays, when in a crystallized state, during a heart attack.

Journalists successfully used secure computing to expose Panama Papers, researchers say

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
A team of researchers from Clemson University, Columbia University and the University of Washington has discovered a security success in an unlikely place: the 'Panama Papers.' "Success stories in computer security are rare,'" said Franzi Roesner, assistant professor at the University of Washington and one of the principal investigators on this project. "But we discovered that the journalists involved in the Panama Papers project seem to have achieved their security goals."

New gene catalog of ocean microbiome reveals surprises

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
In a recent report published in Nature Microbiology, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa (UHM) oceanography professor Ed DeLong and his team report the largest single-site microbiome gene catalog constructed to date. With this new information, the team discovered nutrient limitation is a central driver in the evolution of ocean microbe genomes.

AI implications: Engineer's model lays groundwork for machine-learning device

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
In what could be a small step for science potentially leading to a breakthrough, an engineer at Washington University in St. Louis has taken steps toward using nanocrystal networks for artificial intelligence applications.

UMass Amherst computer scientists offer new techniques to measure social bias in software

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
Brun says, "Unchecked, biases in data and software run the risk of perpetuating biases in society. For example, prior work has demonstrated that racial bias exists in online advertising delivery systems, where online searches for traditionally-minority names were more likely to yield ads related to arrest records. Such software behavior can contribute to racial stereotypes and other grave societal consequences."

Gold nanostars and immunotherapy vaccinate mice against cancer

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
By combining an FDA-approved cancer immunotherapy with an emerging tumor-roasting nanotechnology, Duke researchers improved the efficacy of both therapies in a proof-of-concept study using mice. The potent combination also attacked satellite tumors and distant cancerous cells, completely curing two mice and effectively vaccinating one against the disease.

Noninvasive eye scan could detect key signs of Alzheimer's years before patients show symptoms

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
Cedars-Sinai neuroscience investigators have found that Alzheimer's disease affects the retina -- the back of the eye -- similarly to the way it affects the brain. The study also revealed that an investigational, noninvasive eye scan could detect the key signs of Alzheimer's disease years before patients experience symptoms.

Study validates East Antarctic ice sheet to remain stable even if western ice sheet melts

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
A new study from Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis validates that the central core of the East Antarctic ice sheet should remain stable even if the West Antarctic ice sheet melts.

Astrophysicists explain the mysterious behavior of cosmic rays

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
The model focuses mainly on the nature of Fermi bubbles and explains the spectral distribution of the observed cosmic rays flux. It can be said that the processes they described are capable of re-accelerating galactic cosmic rays generated in supernova explosions. Unlike electrons, protons have a significantly greater lifetime, so when accelerated in Fermi bubbles, they can fill up the volume of the Galaxy and be observed near the Earth.

NASA sees potential Tropical Cyclone 9 form east of Lesser Antilles

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
NOAA's GOES-East Satellite spotted potential Tropical Cyclone 9 organizing east of the Lesser Antilles.

Satellites show Hurricane Gert being affected by wind shear

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
NASA's Aqua satellite and NOAA's GOES-East satellite provided an infrared and visible look at Atlantic Hurricane Gert. Both images showed the storm was being affected by wind shear and had become elongated.

Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
What makes quasicrystals so interesting? Their unusual structure. A Cornell lab has joined scientists pursuing this relatively new area of study.

Antibiotics found to weaken body's ability to fight off disease

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
Adding another reason for doctors to avoid the overuse of antibiotics, new research shows that a reduction in the variety of microbes in the gut interferes with the immune system's ability to fight off disease.

Female mouse embryos actively remove male reproductive systems

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
A protein called COUP-TFII determines whether a mouse embryo develops a male reproductive tract, according to researchers at the National Institutes of Health and their colleagues at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston. The discovery, which appeared online August 17 in the journal Science, changes the long-standing belief that an embryo will automatically become female unless androgens, or male hormones, in the embryo make it male.

Potato waste processing may be the road to enhanced food waste conversion

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
With more than two dozen companies in Pennsylvania manufacturing potato chips, it is no wonder that researchers in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences have developed a novel approach to more efficiently convert potato waste into ethanol. This process may lead to reduced production costs for biofuel in the future and add extra value for chip makers.

Two-step process leads to cell immortalization and cancer

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
Immortalization of cells is a necessary step in the development of cancer, and scientists think that the main cause is turning on an enzyme -- telomerase -- that lengthens chromosomal telomeres and prevents normal cell death. A new study by UC Berkeley scientists shows that turning on telomerase is not a one-step process. In melanoma, and probably other cancers, a mutation turns up telomerase slightly, keeping the cell alive long enough for other changes that up-regulate telomerase.

Bacteria stab amoebae with micro-daggers

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
Researchers from ETH Zurich and the University of Vienna have discovered a type of bacteria that uses tiny daggers to prevent itself from being eaten by amoebae. The scientists also resolved the three-dimensional structure of the mechanism that allows the micro-daggers to be shot quickly.

Early Indian Ocean trade routes bring chicken, black rat to eastern Africa

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
The earliest introduction of domestic chickens and black rats from Asia to the east coast of Africa came via maritime trade routes between the 7th and 8th centuries AD. In a paper published today in the journal PLOS ONE, an international team of researchers, led by director Nicole Boivin of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, used new techniques to analyze ancient DNA and proteins from nearly 500 bone samples.

A better way to measure mortality trends?

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
A new study from Cleveland Clinic suggests long-term mortality trends may be better understood by focusing on life-years lost -- remaining life expectancy for a decedent -- instead of solely looking at cause of death.

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