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Probiotics can protect the skeletons of older women

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
For the first time in the world, researchers at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, have demonstrated that probiotics, dietary supplements with health-promoting bacteria, can be used to affect the human skeleton. Among older women who received probiotics, bone loss was halved compared to women who received only a placebo. The research opens the door to a new way to prevent fractures among the elderly.

When fluid flows almost as fast as light -- with quantum rotation

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Quark-gluon plasma is formed as a result of high energy collisions of heavy ions. After a collision, for a dozen or so yoctoseconds this most perfect of all known fluids undergoes rapid hydrodynamic expansion with velocities close to the velocity of light. Scientists, associated with the IFJ PAN and the GSI, has presented a new model describing these extreme flows. For the first time effects resulting from the fact that the particles creating the plasma carry spin, are taken into account.

Graphene assembled film shows higher thermal conductivity than graphite film

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have developed a graphene assembled film that has over 60 percent higher thermal conductivity than graphite film -- despite the fact that graphite simply consists of many layers of graphene. The graphene film shows great potential as a novel heat spreading material for form-factor driven electronics and other high power-driven systems.

Fat cells control fat cell growth

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Researchers from ETH Zurich and EPFL have discovered a new type of fat cell that suppresses the growth of new fat cells. This opens up new avenues for preventing obesity-related diseases.

The psychobiology of online gaming

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
When researchers looked at expression of a particular gene complex that is activated by chronic stress, they found differences depending on whether someone was positively engaging in video games or were problematic gamers.

Your brain anatomy may play a role in determining your food choices

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Our ability to exercise self-control is linked to our neurobiology.

Fright and flight: Deciding when to escape

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
How does your brain decide what to do in a threatening situation? A new paper published in Nature describes a mechanism by which the brain classifies the level of a threat and decides when to escape.

Ratchet up the pressure: Molecular machine exploits motion in a single direction

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
A Japanese research team led by Osaka University developed a 'ratchet-like molecular machine,' which promotes uni-directional molecular motion during reactions. Inspired by dumbbell-shaped rotaxanes, their molecular machine contains two rings (stations) connected by spacers. One station has a single methyl attachment, while the other has two, like hooks. Macrocyclic α-cyclodextrin passes from the one-hooked to the two-hooked station, catalyzing deuteration of the former. Therefore, movement and reaction are coupled. This could be used in synthetic molecular motors.

Beyond conventional solution-process for 2-D heterostructure

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Chinese researchers demonstrated a facile wet-chemical method to directly grow organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite (MAPbBr3, MA = CH3NH3+) NCs on surfaces of dispersible MoS2 nanosheets.

Opening up a drug delivery route -- Discovery of a new vehicle peptide

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
The bottleneck of cationic antimicrobial peptides as anticancer therapeutics is their limited ability to penetrate cell membranes. Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) researchers discovered a cyclic decapeptide (termed peptide 1) that serves as a promising lead compound as a new intracellular delivery vehicle for therapeutically effective peptides. When conjugated with another membrane impermeable proapoptotic domain (PAD) peptide, the compound was found to have significantly inhibitory activity in cancer cell lines.

Sticklebacks infected with parasites influence behavior of healthy fish

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Certain types of tapeworm make sticklebacks behave carelessly and thus become easier prey for birds. A team of biologists have now demonstrated for the first time that the tapeworm not only influences the behavior of the infected fish -- indirectly, it can also induce risky behaviour in other fish in the group.

How do horses read human emotional cues?

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Scientists demonstrated for the first time that horses integrate human facial expressions and voice tones to perceive human emotion, regardless of whether the person is familiar or not.

Majority of US adults prescribed epinephrine report not using it in an emergency

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
A new study shows in an emergency, 52 percent of adults with potentially life-threatening allergies didn't use the epinephrine auto-injectors (EAI) they were prescribed.

Researchers uncover new target to stop cancer growth

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have discovered that a protein called Munc13-4 helps cancer cells secrete large numbers of exosomes -- tiny, membrane-bound packages containing proteins and RNAs that stimulate tumor progression. The study, which will be published June 21 in the Journal of Cell Biology, could lead to new therapies that stop tumor growth and metastasis by halting exosome production.

Scientists, students to make first live, interactive broadcasts from Arctic Ocean's Northwest Passage

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
A team of scientists and students, conducting research aboard the R/V Akademik Ioffe, will offer select museums, as well as classrooms and citizen scientists worldwide, an opportunity to explore with them in real time a dramatically changing Arctic Ocean, and to discuss their research in the first-ever live, interactive broadcasts from the fabled Northwest Passage.

Human immune 'trigger' map paves way for better treatments

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
A discovery about how human cells are 'triggered' to undergo an inflammatory type of cell death could have implications for treating cancer, stroke and tissue injury, and immune disorders.A research team from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute in Melbourne identified the molecular trigger in human cells that drives necroptosis, and implicated defects in this molecular trigger as potentially playing a role in cancer development.

BCG vaccine leads to long-term blood sugar improvement in type 1 diabetes patients

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
Long-term follow-up of participants in Massachusetts General Hospital clinical trials of a generic vaccine to reverse advanced type 1 diabetes finds significant clinical benefits, including restoration of near-normal blood sugar levels.

Device may detect heart dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors treated with chemo

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
A wireless device designed for detection of heart dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors treated with anthracycline chemotherapy was accurate and displayed a low false-negative rate as compared to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging.

Using fragment-based approaches to discover new antibiotics

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
A new SLAS Discovery review article summarizes new methods of fragment-based lead discovery (FBLD) to identify new compounds as potential antibiotics. It explains how FBLD works and illustrates its advantages over conventional high-throughput screening.

Enhanced detection of nuclear events, thanks to deep learning

Mié, 06/20/2018 - 22:00
A deep neural network running on an ordinary desktop computer is interpreting highly technical data related to national security as well as -- and sometimes better than -- today's best automated methods or even human experts. The research probes incredibly complex data sets filled with events called radioactive decays.

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