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Critical gaps in our knowledge of where infectious diseases occur

Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Today Scientists have called for action. The scientific journal Nature Ecology & Evolution have published a joint statement from scientists at Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, University of Copenhagen and North Carolina State University. The scientists call attention to a serious lack of data on the worldwide distribution of disease-causing organisms. Without this knowledge, predicting where and when the next disease outbreak will emerge is hardly possible. Macroecologists hold the expertise to create the needed data network and close the knowledge gaps.

Lessons from whale population collapse could help future species at risk

Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
A study of historic whaling records has revealed there were warning signs that populations of commercially harvested whales were heading for global collapse up to 40 years before the event.

New screen coating makes reading in sunlight a lot easier -- the secret? Moth eyes

Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Screens on even the newest phones and tablets can be hard to read outside in bright sunlight. Inspired by the nanostructures found on moth eyes, researchers have developed a new antireflection film that could keep people from having to run to the shade to look at their mobile devices.

Rare cells are 'window into the gut' for the nervous system

Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Specialized cells in the gut sense potentially noxious chemicals and trigger electrical impulses in nearby nerve fibers, according to a new study led by UC San Francisco scientists. 'These cells are sensors, like a window looking into the contents of the gut,' said James Bayrer, M.D., Ph.D., an assistant professor of pediatrics at UCSF and one of the lead authors of the paper.

Cells in fish's spinal discs repair themselves

Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Duke researchers have discovered a unique repair mechanism in the developing backbone of zebrafish that could give insight into why spinal discs of longer-lived organisms like humans degenerate with age. The repair mechanism protects fluid-filled cells of the notochord, the precursor of the spine, from mechanical stress. Notochord cells eventually form the gelatinous center of intervertebral discs, the structures that often degenerate with age to cause back and neck pain.

The biology of uterine fluid: How it informs the fetus of mom's world

Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
A developing fetus bathes in a mixture of cellular secretions and proteins unique to its mother's uterus. Before fertilization, the pH of uterine fluid helps create a conducive environment for sperm migration, and afterward, its volume supports the embryo as it implants onto the wall of the uterus. Recent evidence, presented in Trends in Molecular Medicine, suggests that uterine fluid may play another role in embryonic development: communicating the mother's outside conditions to the fetus,

Don't lose sleep over sharing your bed with your pet or kids

Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
About half of all pet owners share their beds or bedrooms with their pets. Studies about co-sleeping are limited to the bedtime arrangements of adults, or parents and their children. In an article in Springer's journal Human Nature, the authors argue that society regards both human-animal and adult-child co-sleeping with apprehension. These concerns should be set aside because both practices have their benefits, says lead author Bradley Smith of Central Queensland University in Australia.

The 'Star dust' wasp is a new extinct species named after David Bowie's alter ego

Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
During her study on fossil insects at China's Capitol Normal University, student Longfeng Li visited the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, USA, carrying two unidentified wasp specimens that were exceptionally well-preserved and 100 million years old. Close examination revealed that both were species new to science. Furthermore, one of them was found to belong to a genus of modern wasps. The study is published in the open access Journal of Hymenoptera Research.

New insight into a central biological dogma on ion transport

Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
New research results from Aarhus University and New York University show how active transport of potassium can be achieved by a membrane protein complex that has roots in both ion pump and ion channel super-families. The results, which have just been published in Nature, shed new light on what define channels and pumps.

An integrated perspective on diabetic, alcoholic, and drug-induced neuropathy

Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Neuropathic pain (NeuP) is a persistent, debilitating form of chronic pain that results from damaged nerves. It has multiple underlying etiologies, including diabetes, alcohol and chemotherapy, and is thought to affect 7-10% of the global population.

News from the pathogen that causes sleeping sickness

Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
A team of researchers from the University of Würzburg has discovered an interesting enzyme in the pathogens responsible for African sleeping sickness: It could be a promising target for drugs.

Smooth propagation of spin waves using gold

Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Assistant Professor Taichi Goto at Toyohashi University of Technology elucidated the noise generation mechanism of the spin wave (SW), the wave of a magnetic moment transmitted through magnetic oxide, and established a way to suppress it. The large noise generated by SWs traveling through magnetic oxides has presented a significant obstacle to its applications. However, it became clear that noise can be suppressed by installing a thin gold film in the appropriate places.

Australian origin likely for iconic New Zealand tree

Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Ancestors of the iconic New Zealand Christmas Tree, P?hutukawa, may have originated in Australia, new fossil research from the University of Adelaide suggests.

Multifunctional catalyst for poison-resistant hydrogen fuel cells

Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
A Kyushu University-led collaboration developed a catalyst that can oxidize both hydrogen and carbon monoxide in fuel cells. As a result, their catalyst is resistant to poisoning by the contaminant carbon monoxide in commercial hydrogen gas, which is a common limitation of current fuel cell catalysts. The action of the multifunctional catalyst resembled that of two enzymes: a hydrogenase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase. This catalyst is promising for use in high-performance hydrogen fuel cells.

How serious is binge drinking among college students with disabilities?

Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
A new study finds that college students with disabilities binge drink more often than their non-disabled student peers. The study, providing the first picture of alcohol use and binge drinking by US college students with disabilities, is out today in Public Health Reports, a SAGE Publishing journal and the official journal of the Office of the US Surgeon General and the US Public Health Service.

Accentuate the positive to reduce risk of chronic disease

Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
People who experience not just positive emotions but a diversity of positive emotions appear to have lower levels of systemic inflammation, which may reduce their risk for chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.

Paracetamol during pregnancy can inhibit masculinity

Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Paracetamol during pregnancy can inhibit masculinityParacetamol during pregnancy can inhibit the development of 'male behavior' in mice. New research from the University of Copenhagen shows that it can reduce sex drive and aggressive behavior.

Biofilms -- the eradication has begun

Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Biofilms are slimy, glue-like membranes that are produced by microbes in order to colonize surfaces. They protect microbes from the body's immune system and increase their resistance to antibiotics. Biofilms represent one of the biggest threats to patients in hospital settings. But there is good news -- Canadian scientists have developed a novel enzyme technology that prevents the formation of biofilms and can also break them down.

Studies of US Lassa fever patient offer clues about immune response, viral persistence

Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
Researchers were able to closely study a Lassa fever patient's immune response over time after he was evacuated to the US for treatment.An experimental drug, favipiravir, was used in treating the US patient and an additional patient infected with Lassa virus in Germany. The drug appeared to have few serious side effects, but its efficacy is unknown.Individual patient reports cannot be generalized to broader population, but findings suggest promising areas for future research.

More guns now being purchased for self-defense than recreation

Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
In a new study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, researchers determined that there has been a shift towards more lethal weapons that appear to be designed primarily for self-defense, rather than recreational use, such as hunting, target shooting, or other forms of recreation.

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