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Secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking adult cancer survivors has declined

Mié, 06/21/2017 - 22:00
From 1999/2000 to 2011/2012, exposure to secondhand smoke among nonsmoking adult cancer survivors declined from 39.6 percent to 15.7 percent, but rates of exposure were higher among those with a history of a smoking-related cancer and those living below the federal poverty level compared with those with other types of cancer and those with the highest incomes, respectively.

Radioactive elements in Cassiopeia A suggest a neutrino-driven explosion

Mar, 06/20/2017 - 22:00
Using elaborate computer simulations, a team of researchers from RIKEN in Japan and the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics (MPA) were able to explain the recently measured spatial distributions of radioactive titanium and nickel in Cassiopeia A, a roughly 340 year old gas remnant of a nearby supernova. The computer models yield strong support for the theoretical idea that such stellar death events can be initiated and powered by neutrinos escaping from the neutron star left behind at the origin of the explosion.

UV-sensing protein in the brain of a marine annelid zooplankton

Mar, 06/20/2017 - 22:00
Larvae of a marine ragworm Platynereis dumerilii have been studied as a zooplankton model, and possess photoreceptor cells in the brain to regulate circadian swimming behavior. This study revealed that a photoreceptive protein in the brain photoreceptor cells is UV (ultra-violet) sensitive. Since avoidance of UV irradiation is a major cause of a large-scale daily movement of zooplankton, the UV sensor in the brain would be important for physiology and ecology of the zooplankton model.

HIV-positive women with cytomegalovirus likelier to pass virus that causes AIDS to infant

Mar, 06/20/2017 - 22:00
HIV-positive women with cytomegalovirus, or CMV, in their urine at the time of labor and delivery are more than five times likelier than HIV-positive women without CMV to transmit HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, to their infants. The research also found that they are nearly 30 times likelier to transmit cytomegalovirus to their infants.

Scientists may have cracked rugby league's code

Mar, 06/20/2017 - 22:00
Scientists from James Cook University and Victoria University may have unlocked the secret behind success in the National Rugby League (NRL) competition.

Ultra-thin camera creates images without lenses

Mar, 06/20/2017 - 22:00
Caltech engineers have built a camera that does not need lenses to focus light.

The curious case of the warped Kuiper Belt

Mar, 06/20/2017 - 22:00
The plane of the solar system is warped in the belt's outer reaches, signaling the presence of an unknown Mars-to-Earth-mass planetary object far beyond Pluto, according to UA research. 

Starting school young can put child wellbeing at risk

Mar, 06/20/2017 - 22:00
A study led by the University of Exeter Medical School which investigated more than 2,000 children across 80 primary schools in Devon, has found that children who are younger than their peers when they start school are more likely to develop poorer mental health, as rated by parents and teachers.

Report on stillbirth and neonatal death rates across the UK

Mar, 06/20/2017 - 22:00
Study shows fall in stillbirth rate across the UK -- a step towards the government target.

Record UK rainfall in winter 2013-14 caused by tropics, stratosphere and climate warming

Mar, 06/20/2017 - 22:00
New research has revealed the causes of the UK's record rainfall and subsequent flooding during the 2013-14 winter.Using carefully tailored atmosphere/ocean model experiments, the research team found that a combination of unusual tropical conditions, the stratospheric polar vortex, and climate warming were behind the extreme rainfall, which led to severe flooding across many parts of the UK.

Cosmetic procedures practice and promotion 'cause for serious concern,' says ethics body

Mar, 06/20/2017 - 22:00
New developments and marketing have made an increasing range of surgical and non-surgical cosmetic procedures -- including botox, dermal fillers, implants, and skin lightening, as well as newer techniques such as 'fat freezing' and 'vampire' treatments -- big business and widely accessible. Today the Nuffield Council on Bioethics publishes a wide-ranging new report, 'Cosmetic procedures: ethical issues,' which makes a series of recommendations that highlight areas of concern for the practice and promotion of invasive cosmetic procedures.

More frequent sexual activity can boost brain power in older adults, according to study

Mar, 06/20/2017 - 22:00
More frequent sexual activity has been linked to improved brain function in older adults, according to a study by the universities of Coventry and Oxford.

Pollinator extinctions alter structure of ecological networks

Mar, 06/20/2017 - 22:00
The absence of a single dominant bumblebee species from an ecosystem disrupts foraging patterns among a broad range of remaining pollinators in the system -- from other bees to butterflies, beetles and more, field experiments show.

New femto-camera with quadrillion fractions of a second resolution

Mar, 06/20/2017 - 22:00
Researchers from ITMO University have built a setup for recording holograms of tiny objects like living cells with a femtosecond speed. The new method allows one to reconstruct phase topography of a studied sample according to deformations that emerge in a laser pulse when it passes through the specimen. In comparison to electron microscopes, the device can visualize transparent biological structures without introducing contrast agents. The paper was published in Applied Physics Letters.

African leopards revealed: Study documents minute-to-minute behavior of elusive cats

Mar, 06/20/2017 - 22:00
The elusive behavior of the African leopard has been revealed in great detail for the first time as part of a sophisticated study that links the majestic cat's caloric demands and its drive to kill.

U study finds recognition technology a step closer to use in courtroom

Mar, 06/20/2017 - 22:00
A report by University of Minnesota Law Professor Francis Shen, the study's lead author and director of the Neurolaw Lab, finds that brain-based memory recognition technology may be one step closer to court. The findings suggest American jurors can appropriately integrate the evidence in their evaluations of criminal defendants, which could ultimately lead to an additional expert witness on the stand.

Single fungus amplifies Crohn's disease symptoms

Mar, 06/20/2017 - 22:00
A microscopic fungus called Candida tropicalis triggered gut inflammation and exacerbated symptoms of Crohn's disease, in a recent study conducted at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine.

Analysis indicates that insurance expansion improves access to care, health, and survival

Mar, 06/20/2017 - 22:00
There is strong evidence that expanding health insurance increases access to care, improves health in a variety of ways, and reduces mortality, according to Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health researchers,

Fossil holds new insights into how fish evolved onto land

Mar, 06/20/2017 - 22:00
The fossil of an early snake-like animal -- called Lethiscus stocki -- has kept its evolutionary secrets for the last 340-million years.Now, an international team of researchers, led by the University of Calgary, has revealed new insights into the ancient Scottish fossil that dramatically challenge our understanding of the early evolution of tetrapods, or four-limbed animals with backbones.

Study answers why ketamine helps depression, offers target for safer therapy

Mar, 06/20/2017 - 22:00
UT Southwestern Medical Center scientists have identified a key protein that helps trigger ketamine's rapid antidepressant effects in the brain, a crucial step to developing alternative treatments to the controversial drug being dispensed in a growing number of clinics across the country.