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The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
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Discovery could lead to new catalyst design to reduce nitrogen oxides in diesel exhaust

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
Researchers have discovered a new reaction mechanism that could be used to improve catalyst designs for pollution control systems to further reduce emissions of smog-causing nitrogen oxides in diesel exhaust.

New Pathology Atlas maps genes in cancer to accelerate progress in personalized medicine

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
A new Pathology Atlas is launched today with an analysis of all human genes in all major cancers showing the consequence of their corresponding protein levels for overall patient survival. The difference in expression patterns of individual cancers observed in the study strongly reinforces the need for personalized cancer treatment based on precision medicine.

Scientists identify central neural circuit for itch sensation

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
A recent study carried out by Dr. Sun Yangang's lab at the Institute of Neuroscience of the Chinese Academy of Sciences discovered a central neural circuit that is critical for transmitting the itch signal. By using optogenetic, chemogenetic, patch clamp recording, and in vivo fiber photometry techniques, the researchers demonstrated that the spino-parabrachial pathway plays a key role in transmitting itch signals from the spinal cord to the brain, and identified the parabrachial nucleus as a first central relay for the itch sensation.

Study shows cigarette makers shifted stance on nicotine patches, gum

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
A new study conducted by scientists at UC San Francisco reports that tobacco companies have known for decades that, without counseling, NRT hardly ever works, and that consumers often use it to complement smoking. This insight from the formerly secret industry documents known as the "Tobacco Papers" reveals why companies that once viewed nicotine patches and gum as a threat to their cigarette sales now embrace them as a business opportunity, the researchers said.

Higher rural suicide rates driven by use of guns

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
Suicide rates in rural areas of Maryland are 35-percent higher than in the state's urban settings, a disparity that can be attributed to the significantly greater use of firearms in rural settings, according to new research from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Community health workers lead to better health, lower costs for Medicaid patients

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
As politicians struggle to solve the nation's healthcare problems, a new study finds a way to improve health and lower costs among Medicaid and uninsured patients. Researchers at Penn Medicine showed that patients who received support from community health workers (CHWs) had 30 percent fewer hospital admissions in one year compared to those who did not receive CHW support. The results also showed reductions in cigarette smoking, obesity, diabetes severity, and mental illness.

An unusual white dwarf may be a supernova leftover

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
Astronomers have identified a white dwarf star in our galaxy that may be the leftover remains of a recently discovered type of supernova.

Lubricant-infused material is a slick trick against mussels

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
A lubricant-infused polymer could reduce the problem of fouling, in which mussels, barnacles and other organisms encrust themselves to ship hulls and marine pipes.

Breaching the sexual differentiation paradigm for reproductive tract development

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
Going against the general consensus, scientists have unveiled an unexpected mechanism for sexual differentiation of critical reproductive structures during embryonic development.

Reprogrammed cells rescue infertility in mice

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
Reprogramming cells carrying a third chromosome resulted in the loss of the extra chromosome in mice and human cells, scientists report, which could eventually pave the way to novel approaches that treat developmental defects or infertilities associated with extra chromosomes.

Genome analysis with near-complete privacy possible, say Stanford researchers

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
It is now possible to scour complete human genomes for the presence of disease-associated genes without revealing any genetic information not directly associated with the inquiry, say Stanford University researchers.

Slippery liquid surfaces confuse mussels

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
Mussels are one of the worst perpetrators of biofouling, or the unwanted accumulation of organisms on underwater structures. A team of scientists from the Wyss Institute and NTU, Singapore has demonstrated that a lubricant-infused surface effectively prevents mussels from sticking by masking the solid surface with a layer of liquid.

Pioneering research reveals how altered brain networks can lead to seizures

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
An international team of scientists, led by mathematicians from the University of Exeter's Living Systems Institute, have developed a ground-breaking new method that can identify regions of brain tissue most likely to generate seizures in people with epilepsy.

New technique overcomes genetic cause of infertility

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
Scientists have created healthy offspring from genetically infertile male mice, offering a potential new approach to tackling a common genetic cause of human infertility.

Worm atlas profiles gene readouts in every cell type in the animal

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
A worm atlas has been built that profiles gene readouts for every kind of cell in the animal. This is the first time this type of comprehensive profiling for a multi-cellular organism has been created. The study was conducted at a larval stage of the roundworm C. elegans. The resource should have many uses, such as for studies on how genetic instructions guide the formation of body parts.

Early rotator cuff surgery yields good long-term outcomes

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
Early surgery to repair tears of one of the shoulder rotator cuff muscles provides lasting improvement in strength, function, and other outcomes, reports a study in the Aug. 16, 2017 issue of The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. The journal is published in partnership with Wolters Kluwer.

Study of nervous system cells can help to understand degenerative diseases

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
A collaborative research by Brazilian and Dutch scientists shows that many of the genes that are expressed by microglia are different between humans and mice, which are frequently used as animal models in research on Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. The findings will be important for studies of the gene expression profile of normal microglia during human aging.

Lab tests show molecule appears to spur cell death in tumors, inflammation

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
A drug-like molecule developed by Duke Health researchers appears to intercede in an inflammatory response that is at the center of a variety of diseases, including some cancers, rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease.

Army researcher's paper named 'Editor's Pick' in journal Optics Letters

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
A recently published paper by Army Research Laboratory Scientist Dr. Fredrik Fatemi was chosen as 'Editor's Pick' in the journal Optics Letters.

Older users like to snoop on Facebook, but worried others might snoop on them

Mié, 08/16/2017 - 22:00
Older adults are drawn to Facebook so they can check out pictures and updates from family and friends, but may resist using the site because they are worried about who will see their own content, according to a team of researchers.

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