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Actualizado: hace 18 horas 51 mins

A role for circadian enhancers to prevent myocardial injury in the perioperative setting

Mar, 10/16/2018 - 22:00
The current study demonstrates a deleterious effect of midazolam administration prior to myocardial ischemia and reveals reduced circadian protein Period 2 (PER2) levels as the underlying mechanism. These findings highlight PER2 as a cardioprotective mechanism and suggest the PER2 enhancer nobiletin as preventative therapy for myocardial injury in the perioperative setting where midazolam pretreatment occurs frequently.

Researchers identify new approach for controlling dengue fever and Zika virus

Mar, 10/16/2018 - 22:00
To be able to reproduce and become effective disease carriers, mosquitoes must first attain optimal body size and nutritional status. A pair of researchers at the University of California, Riverside, have succeeded in using CRISPR-Cas9, a powerful tool for altering DNA sequences and modifying gene function, to decrease mosquito body size, moving the research one step closer to eliminating mosquitoes that carry dengue fever and Zika virus.

Arctic greening thaws permafrost, boosts runoff

Mar, 10/16/2018 - 22:00
A new collaborative study has investigated Arctic shrub-snow interactions to obtain a better understanding of the far north's tundra and vast permafrost system. Incorporating extensive in situ observations, Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists tested their theories with a novel 3D computer model and confirmed that shrubs can lead to significant degradation of the permafrost layer that has remained frozen for tens of thousands of years. These interactions are driving increases in discharges of fresh water into rivers, lakes and oceans.

Study: US tornado frequency shifting eastward from Great Plains

Mar, 10/16/2018 - 22:00
A new study finds that over the past four decades, tornado frequency has increased over a large swath of the Midwest and Southeast and decreased in portions of the central and southern Great Plains, a region traditionally associated with Tornado Alley.

Dry conditions in East Africa half a million years ago possibly shaped human evolution, study finds

Mar, 10/16/2018 - 22:00
Samples of ancient sediments from a lake basin in East Africa have revealed that arid conditions developed in the area around half a million years ago, an environmental change that could have played a major role in human evolution and influenced advances in stone technology, according to an international research team that includes geologists from Georgia State University.

First GWAS analysis of 'type 1.5 diabetes' reveals links between immune and metabolic disease

Mar, 10/16/2018 - 22:00
Scientists who performed the largest-ever genetic study of a puzzling type of adult-onset diabetes have uncovered new connections to the two major types of diabetes, offering intriguing insights into more accurate diagnosis and better treatment. Latent automimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a relatively common disorder that shares features of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

Researchers propose conceptual framework to study role of exercise in multiple sclerosis

Mar, 10/16/2018 - 22:00
'Exercise is a low-cost, non-invasive modality,' noted Dr. John DeLuca, 'so we are very interested in learning more about how activity results in these improvements. Rethinking how we view exercise in the long-term management of MS and other neurological conditions is our first step. We anticipate that the PRIMERS framework will accelerate advances in treatment by integrating the contributions from neuroscience, neurophysiology, and neurorehabilitation."

How does brain structure influence performance on language tasks?

Mar, 10/16/2018 - 22:00
The architecture of each person's brain is unique, and differences may influence how quickly people can complete various cognitive tasks. But how neuroanatomy impacts performance is largely an open question. To learn more, scientists are developing a new tool -- computational models of the brain -- to simulate how the structure of the brain may impact brain activity and, ultimately, human behavior.

Wind farms and reducing hurricane precipitation

Mar, 10/16/2018 - 22:00
New research reveals an unexpected benefit of large-scale offshore wind farms: the ability to lessen precipitation from hurricanes.

Engineered enzyme eliminates nicotine addiction in preclinical tests

Mar, 10/16/2018 - 22:00
Scientists at Scripps Research have successfully tested a potential new smoking-cessation treatment in rodents.

Arctic ice sets speed limit for major ocean current

Mar, 10/16/2018 - 22:00
Scientists at MIT have now identified a key mechanism, which they call the 'ice-ocean governor,' that controls how fast the Beaufort Gyre spins and how much fresh water it stores. In a paper published today in Geophysical Research Letters, the researchers report that the Arctic's ice cover essentially sets a speed limit on the gyre's spin.

Illinois scientists find stem cell proliferation is controlled directly by nervous system

Mar, 10/16/2018 - 22:00
Somatic stem cells are microscopic workhorses, constantly regenerating cells throughout the body: skin and the lining of the intestine, for example. And to University of Illinois neuroscientists, they represent untapped potential.

UC researchers recommend universal screening to tackle rise in Hepatitis C

Mar, 10/16/2018 - 22:00
Physicians are encountering a growing number of younger patients who are testing positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV) fueled largely by the opioid crisis impacting communities around the country. That increase and more effective and tolerable drug regimens for HCV infection, means one-time universal screening of all adults for HCV is now cost effective and recommended, say physician researchers in the University of Cincinnati (UC) College of Medicine.

NASA catches the scattered remains of former Tropical Storm Tara

Mar, 10/16/2018 - 22:00
NASA's Aqua satellite captured an infrared image of the remnants of former Tropical Storm Tara after it dissipated near the coast of western Mexico's Jalisco state. Jalisco is a western Mexican state along the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

Case Western Reserve researchers cure drug-resistant infections without antibiotics

Mar, 10/16/2018 - 22:00
Biochemists, microbiologists, drug discovery experts and infectious disease doctors have teamed up in a new study that shows antibiotics are not always necessary to cure sepsis in mice. Instead of killing causative bacteria with antibiotics, researchers treated infected mice with molecules that block toxin formation in bacteria. Every treated mouse survived. The breakthrough study, published in Scientific Reports, suggests infections in humans might be cured the same way.

Study uncovers new link between neonicotinoid pesticide exposure and bumblebee decline

Mar, 10/16/2018 - 22:00
Adding to evidence that pesticide use may be abetting the decline of bumblebee, a new study reveals that daily consumption of even small doses of neonicotinoids reduces the survival of queen and male bees, which are critical to the viability of wild populations. The study also found that exposure to neonicotinoids alters the expression of many bee genes, suggesting that the chemicals may be having a greater impact on wild bee populations than previously thought.

Social media buffers depression among older adults with pain

Mar, 10/16/2018 - 22:00
With a few finger strokes or swipes on a computer or cell phone, seniors with pain reduce the risk of depression when visiting social media sites.

Substantial changes in air pollution across China during 2015 to 2017

Mar, 10/16/2018 - 22:00
The first detailed analysis of air pollution trends in China reveals a 20 per cent drop in concentrations of particulate pollution over the last three years (2015-2017).

Drivers of inflammation provide valuable targets for new gum disease therapies

Mar, 10/16/2018 - 22:00
A subset of T cells contributes to the inflammation and bone loss that characterizes periodontitis, a severe form of gum disease. According to new research, led by the University of Pennsylvania's George Hajishengallis and scientists at the National Institutes of Health, drugs that specifically inhibit these cells may offer an effective therapy for the condition.

Probiotics and antibiotics create a killer combination

Mar, 10/16/2018 - 22:00
MIT researchers have shown that by delivering a combination of antibiotics and alginate-encapsulated probiotics, they can eradicate two strains of drug-resistant bacteria that often infect wounds.

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